Skip navigation
All Places > NFPA Today > Blog > 2016 > November

NFPA 58NFPA has issued the following errata on NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code:

  • NFPA 58, Errata 58-17-1, referencing Table,, and Table 16.1(i), Table Note 3 of the 2017 edition, issued on November 28, 2016.

An errata is a correction issued to an NFPA Standard, published in NFPA News, Codes Online, and included in any further distribution of the document.

When many of us think of fire in high-rise buildings, our minds go first to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City on September 11, 2001. That means that we remember the deadliest high-rise fire in world history.  In reality, fires in high-rise buildings are usually smaller than fires in other buildings.

In high-rise buildings, fire spread beyond the room of origin in 1% of the dormitory fires; in 4% of the fires in apartments or multi-family housing, hotels, and properties that care for the sick; and in 10% of the office buildings.  In buildings that were not high-rise, fire spread beyond the room of origin in 2% of the dormitory fires, 9% of the fires in properties that care for the sick, 10% of the apartment or multi-family housing fires, 11% of the hotel or motel fires, and 21% of the office building fires.

According to NFPA’s new report on High-Rise Building Fires, U.S fire departments responded to an estimated average of 14,500 structure fires in these properties per year in 2009-2013.  These fires caused an average of 40 civilian deaths, 520 civilian injuries, and $154 million in direct property damage annually.  For this analysis, a high-rise building is a building that has at least seven stories above grade.  

Just five occupancy groups accounted for almost three-quarters (73%) of all high-rise building fires:

  • Apartments or other multi-family housing (62%);
  • Hotels (4%)
  • Dormitories (4%)
  • Office buildings (2%)
  • Facilities that care for the sick (2%)

The report provides more details about high-rise fires and fires in shorter buildings in these five occupancy groups.

Compared to fires in buildings that were not high-rise, fires in high-rise buildings were much less likely to spread beyond the room or floor of origin. High-rise buildings were more likely to have fire detection and much more likely to have wet pipe sprinklers than shorter buildings.  While construction type was dropped from the current version of the National Fire Incident Reporting System, data from 1980 to 1998 showed that high-rise buildings were much more likely to have fire-resistant construction.

Most high-rise building fires start below the seventh floor. The kitchen or cooking area was the leading area of origin in all five occupancies, regardless of height. 

And for those of you interested in the really big high-rise fires, Appendix A of NFPA’s High-Rise Building Fires report has a list of the ten deadliest high-rise building fires in the world.  Most in the list link to previously published NFPA material about these blazes. 

The causes of high-rise building fires have a lot in common with fires in other properties. We know that smoke detection, fire sprinklers, and compartmentation are vital to fire safety.  Today’s high-rise buildings are more likely to have this protection than are other properties.  The statistics remind us how important this protection is.

NFPA joins CPSC to demonstrate the fire dangers of turkey fryers in this live burn. NFPA strongly discourages the use of turkey fryers and continues to believe that turkey fryers that use cooking oil, as currently designed, are not suitable for safe use by even a well-informed and careful consumer. These turkey fryers use a substantial quantity of cooking oil at high temperatures and units currently available for home use pose a significant danger that hot oil will be released at some point during the cooking process. In addition, the burners that heat the oil can ignite spilled oil. The use of turkey fryers by consumers can lead to devastating burns, other injuries, and the destruction of property. NFPA urges those who prefer fried turkey to seek out professional establishments, such as grocery stores, specialty food retailers, and restaurants, for the preparation of the dish, or consider a new type of "oil-less" turkey fryer."


For more safety tips and information on safe cooking visit

70E BLOG.png

There are many statements being made in the field that NFPA 70E® has a preference to use the incident energy analysis method over the PPE category method. One of the stated reasons for this has been that it is first in the standard and the first requirement is always the preferred method.  None of this is true.  Either method can be used if applicable. Something is only a hierarchy if the standard states the list is in a discrete order (think hierarchy of risk controls which are in a specific descending order of effectiveness or that the explicit primary requirement is that an electrically safe work condition be established.)

NFPA 70E permits the use of either the PPE category method or the incident energy analysis method. The standard does not have a preference since each method has its merits and its limitations. Both achieve a level safety for the worker when energized work is justified. Why use one method over the other? Let’s look at some reasons for each. First, both require that the hierarchy of risk controls be used.  Both require that you know the available short-circuit current and fault-clearing time. From there the methods diverge.

To use the PPE category method the equipment must be listed on the table. The specific parameters for that piece of equipment cannot be exceeded. The PPE category and the arc-flash boundary are given. A benefit of the table method is that it does not require that an extensive incident energy evaluation be conducted. It is potentially a quick and effective way to properly label equipment. It provides a simple four level system for required PPE within the facility.

There are limitations in the use of the table method. If the equipment is not on the table or if even one parameter is exceeded the method cannot be used. If the working distance will be closer than specified the method cannot be used.  A detriment is that if the actual circuit parameters are well below those specified the PPE category remains the same. Although the hierarchy of risk controls may lower the risk to the worker the PPE category remains the same. The table is either GO or NO GO. There is no interpolation.

A benefit of using the incident energy analysis method is that it can be used on any piece of electrical equipment. It allows a finer pinpoint on the incident energy rather than the broad range of the category method. It can be adjusted for a change in current, clearing time or working distance.  One detriment is that it is a very detailed process typically requiring the assistance of an outside consultant or the use of a computer program to perform the calculation. Although no specific method of calculation is required by NFPA 70E, the incident energy analysis method requires that you select the most appropriate calculation method for the type of circuit. This method is often a longer process than the table method. Depending on your viewpoint, having the ability to specify individual PPE for each piece of equipment may be a benefit or detriment.

There are other benefits, detriments and shortcomings of both methods. Regardless of the method selected, of the reason for selecting one method over the other, or other issues associated with a particular method, the main concern is protecting the worker. NFPA 70E allows both methods to used equally. Both may be used in the same facility but must not be used on the same piece of equipment.  You must decide which one is applicable for your equipment.

Next time: A misuse of the PPE category tables.

This is the ideal time to get your application in for the CFI-I exam this spring. Here's exactly what you need to know to get started.


  1. The NFPA Certified Fire Inspector I (CFI-I) certification program was created in response to repeated requests by local entities, state agencies, and national organizations for certification programs founded on the NFPA 1031, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire Inspector and Plan Examiner. When you pass the exam you gain recognition as an expert by your colleagues and you  earn an NFPA / Pro Board CFI-I certificate, wallet card and lapel pin that further highlights your accomplishment.

  2. The exam is 4-hours, 110 multiple choice questions. Download the Candidate Handbook (PDF) for more information.

  3. You can take the written exam at a dedicated location or select a computer-based exam.  The examination is available on demand in a computer-based format at test centers around the world. Upon receipt of the application and test fee, the applicant will receive their authorization letter with instructions on how to schedule the computer-based exam. A list of computer-based test centers is located at

  4. The application must be received 4 weeks prior to the exam date. The spring exam schedule for the Certified Fire Inspector I exam includes: 

                   February 10, 2017 in New Orleans, LA - application due January 12, 2017
    March 24, 2017 in Las Vegas, NV - application due February 23, 2017
    April 14, 2017 in Atlanta, GA - application due March 16, 2017

                   May 12, 2017 at NFPA Headquarters in Quincy, MA - application due April 13, 2017

  5. It's an open-book test. The latest version of the CFI-I exam is based on the 2014 NFPA 1031, Professional Qualifications for Fire Inspector and Plan Examiner. It is the candidate’s responsibility to obtain materials needed for study purposes and to have present during the examination. The following list contains the resources to be used in preparing for and taking the examination. All items in the examination are compatible with both code sets. Please verify with your jurisdiction or certification partnership agency for the proper set.

    2009 NFPA Code Set
    •NFPA 1, Fire Code - 2009 Ed.
    •NFPA 13, Installation of Sprinkler Systems - 2007 Ed.
    •NFPA 25, Standard for the ITM of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems - 2008 Ed.
    •NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code® - 2007 Ed.
    •NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code® - 2009 Ed.     


    2012 NFPA Code Set
    •NFPA 1, Fire Code - 2012 Ed.
    •NFPA 13, Installation of Sprinkler Systems - 2010 Ed.
    •NFPA 25, Standard for the ITM of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems - 2011 Ed.
    •NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code® - 2010 Ed.
    •NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code® - 2012 Ed.

  6. The reference set is available at a special price. These NFPA codes and standards have been conveniently packaged into reference sets and are available for people registering for the CFI-1 exam at a special price, only through the NFPA Certification Department. Download the CFI-I Application Form (PDF) (appendix I) to order these references. Please be sure to indicate which set you would like on your order form.

  7. Additional Materials. In addition to the NFPA resources listed above, the NFPA Fire and Life Safety Inspection Manual, 9th Edition (Contact NFPA Customer Service at 800-344-3555 to order), and the IFSTA Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement Manual, 7th Edition (contact IFSTA at 800-654-4055 to order) are excellent resources for study and review. Please keep in mind that their use is not allowed during the examination.

  8. Certifed Fire Inspector -I 4-day Classroom Training is scheduled for the same locations as the exam, during the four days preceding the written exam. While not a test prep training, it does offer practical instruction that will help you quickly locate specific facts within the reference books click here to be notified of 2017 dates.

  9. Pass the exam to receive a Pro Board recognized certification, recognition as an expert by your colleagues, and an NFPA/Pro Board CFI-I certificate, wallet card and lapel pin that further highlights your accomplishment. 


Applications to sit for the written CFI-I exam must be processed and approved 4 weeks prior to the exam date. Simply download the Candidate Handbook and the CFI-I Application Form. Please direct questions and applications to or 617-984-7432 or go to

energy storage systems

Photo credit: NFPA Journal, January/February 2016 edition


Energy Storage Systems (ESS) are the topic of a lot of discussion in almost all realms of society. Elon Musk's recent announcement of the solar shingle has created quite the buzz in the technology world.


With this technology moving forward at near space travel speeds safety professionals are working double-time to keep up. Earlier this year NFPA Journal wrote an article on enforcers and emergency responders working to be prepared for the proliferation of ESS technologies and installations. The Fire Protection Research Foundation facilitate a workshop in November 2015 hosted by the Fire Department of New York on energy storage systems in the built environment and published a report on a fire hazard assessment of lithium ion energy storage systems. In August of this year NFPA's Standards Council approved a new project on the installation of stationary energy storage systems,


For those in the New York City area interested in learning more you can join me next week at the SFPE NY Metropolitan Chapter meeting where I will be providing a presentation on past and current projects at NFPA and the Research Foundation on energy storage systems. Meeting details:


When: Tuesday, November 29, 2016; 9:00am - 10:00am

Where: NYU, 11 West 42nd Street, 4th Floor, The Gural Room

Cost: Free for chapter members, $20 for guests

Additional Information (website): Society of Fire Protection Engineers - NY Metro


UPDATE: Slides from this presentation are attached, which include links for the projects discussed.

Tall timber buildings are a hot topic these days. There was even a TED talk on why we should build wooden skyscrapers. A quick search for tall timber buildings shows quite a few in the design phase both in the United States and in other parts of the world. Before getting into the pros and cons of tall timber buildings, it is important to understand the type of timber that would be used.


The timber would not be light weight wood frame construction usually used in one- and two-family homes, but rather mass timber. There are many types of mass timber, including cross-laminated timber (CLT), nail laminated timber (NLT), and glue laminated timber (Glulam). Most of the discussions I've been involved in center around CLT. For those who are new to the mass timber world, CLT is usually made of three, five, or seven layers of wood laid in a crisscross pattern that are then glued together. For more information on the types of mass timber this link is a good resource.


Many people are asking, why mass timber? As the green initiative grows, mass timber becomes more appealing. Many proponents argue that it is a renewable resource and has a significantly smaller carbon footprint as compared to steel or concrete buildings. Prefabricated CLT panels have also been shown to decrease construction time. The time lapse video below shows the construction of a nine story building in nine weeks.



While mass timber sounds great from a building material standpoint, there are definitely some concerns. It was touched on briefly in the TED talk, but the fire concern is larger than it was described. We know that wood burns, and we know that it chars. The char layer does form a sort of protective layer to the rest of the wood, but can we rely on the char layer to remain in place on the loaded structural components? There have been many discussions about removing the gypsum board coverings and allowing exposed CLT. How will exposed CLT contribute to fire growth? We already know that today's furnishings burn faster and hotter than the furnishings of decades ago. Now we are talking about adding a combustible building material into the mix. Structural stability after a fire is also a concern. In a fire event, we need to not only think about getting everyone safely out, but also about the firefighters who go into the burning building to rescue those who couldn't get out on their own or to simply carryout firefighting operations. There are additional concerns regarding the exterior exposure of mass timber buildings. Over the years, we have seen numerous exterior facade fires. If a wood building were nearby, how can we protect it?


There are numerous studies underway to look at the fire risk of mass timber buildings. The Fire Protection Research Foundation is working on phase two of their study. Phase one, a literature review can be found here. NEWBuildS of Canada has also done research into mass timber buildings. They have a lot of information available on their website.


This is an exciting time for building construction, but before making the jump to a prescriptive allowance for tall timber buildings, we need to gather all the information. Building codes are meant to protect both the occupants and the firefighters, so we owe it to them to do the research.

We are approaching the "most wonderful time of the year" but also a very dangerous time of the year.  A time full of cooking, heating, holiday lights, candles, and overloaded electrical outlets.  But first, turkey.

Image result for thanksgiving restaurant



Not everyone celebrates Thanksgiving by spending hours in the kitchen.  Some enjoy a delicious meal with family and friends at a restaurant and others buy delectable sides and pies and even a turkey already prepared for their festivities. One of my favorite memories as a little kid growing up was the Thanksgiving I spent with my parents on Captiva Island in Florida!


NFPA has regulations that govern the cooking equipment used to prepare your Thanksgiving day feast, whether you enjoy it at a restaurant or buy it from a commercial business to take home.  Chapter 50 of NFPA 1, Fire Code, addresses provisions for commercial cooking and is applicable to the design, installation, operation, inspection, and maintenance of all pubic and private commercial cooking equipment.  This type of equipment is required to comply with Chapter 50 of the Code as well as NFPA 96, Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations.  The requirements of Chapter 50 do not apply to residential cooking equipment used for commercial cooking operations and do not apply to cooking equipment located in a single dwelling unit.


For the protection of grease removal devices, hood exhaust plenums and exhaust duct systems, fire-extinguishing systems must be provided.  Any cooking equipment that produces grease-laden vapors and that might be a source of ignition of grease in the hood, grease removal device, or duct shall be protected by fire-extinguishing equipment. Fire-extinguishing equipment includes both automatic fire-extinguishing systems as primary protection and portable fire extinguishers as secondary backup. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems are required to comply with ANSI/UL 300, Standard for Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishing Systems for Protection of Restaurant Cooking Areas, or other equivalent standards and must be installed in accordance with the requirements of the listing


Chapter 50 provides comprehensive provisions for the protection of commercial cooking equipment, more than can be written about here in one post.  In addition to the requirements for fire-extinguishing systems, Chapter 50 and NFPA 96, together, address:

  • Procedures for the use, inspection, testing, and maintenance of equipment
  • Equipment clearance
  • Protection of coverings and enclosure materials.
  • Hood systems
  • Operation of fire-extinguishing systems


Regardless of where or how you enjoy the thanksgiving holiday, staying safe is a priority.  The provisions in NFPA 1 help code officials ensure restaurants and food service operations keep their facilities up to code and their equipment and employees safe for all.


Have a wonderful holiday! (and stay tuned next week for a special Wednesday edition of Fire Code Fridays!)

Photo courtesy of Reuters/Guadalupe Pardo

A fire that occurred at a movie theater in a popular seaside mall in Lima, Perú, on Wednesday appears to have been caused by a short circuit. The theater’s walls, which were reportedly made of highly flammable materials, enabled the fire to spread rapidly. At least four people died in the incident.

Coincidentally, this tragic fire happened while Maria Figueroa, an NFPA instructor, was conducting a training on NFPA 1, Fire Code and NFPA 101®, Life Safety Code® for authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) in Lima this week, reinforcing NFPA´s collaborative fire safety efforts with authorities in Perú.

Many Latin American countries adopt or reference NFPA codes and standards – this serves as the first step toward stronger fire safety levels. However, this week’s theatre fire in Lima reflects the critical importance of jurisdictions enforcing codes and standards to truly reduce the risk and impact of fire on Latin American communities.

Many of NFPA’s codes and standards are available in Spanish and we also offer training throughout the region. Antonio Macías, based in México city, is NFPA’s director for Latin American programs and will be following up with authorities and our members in Lima.

Remembering When Conference 2016

Karen Berard-Reed and the NFPA have officially been recognized by the State Firefighters' and Fire Marshals' Association of Texas and the Texas Fire Marshals' Association for their Remembering When Program as a key program to keep Texans safe. This recognition includes an endorsement of Remembering When as a statewide fire and fall prevention program for older adults.


These recognitions were presented to the NFPA from John Erskine, Burnet, Texas Fire Marshal and Richard Zelade of the State Firefighters Marshals Office. 


Remembering When: A Fire and Fall Prevention Program for Older Adults, was developed by NFPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help older adults live safely at home for as long as possible.

Remembering When is centered around 16 key safety messages, eight fire prevention and eight fall prevention, developed by experts from national and local safety organizations as well as through focus group testing in high-fire-risk states.

Established in April of 2015 the Technical Committee on Building Fire & Life Safety Directors held its first face-to-face meeting at NFPA Headquarters November 8-10, 2016 after holding a number of online meetings over the past year and a half.  


This committee is charged with the development of multiple national standards related to facility emergency action plans and the professional qualifications for facilities safety directors.


The committee’s scope has two parts:

  • First, “This committee shall have primary responsibility for documents related to the duties, requirements, and competencies required of Facility Safety Directors.
  • Second, “This committee shall also have primary responsibility for the establishment of minimum requirements for emergency action plans addressing all-hazard emergencies within occupied structures having an occupant load of greater than 500", except for industrial occupancies.


At its November 8-10, 2016 meeting, the committee developed chapters on definitions, reference documents, administration and “job performance requirements” (JPR’s) by which facilities safety directors will be measured and tested for certification. They developed seven (7) duties for the position under which are contained some twenty-nine (29) tasks. Their draft document will be sent to NFPA’s Professional Qualifications Correlating Committee in early December and then to NFPA’s Standards Committee to be placed in cycle and posted to receive public inputs. Watch for further news in the coming months.


The Committee currently has eighteen (18) principal members and three (3) alternates. This is a very large and important project and we'd like to see a full committee of thirty (30) members and thirty (30) alternates including people to represent the various disability communities.


Applications for membership can be completed online at: Building Fire & Life Safety Directors (BLF-AAA)



Over 4,300 professionals have become a Certified Fire Protection Specialist (CFPS) to date. We understand the importance of this certification to those that earn them, as a CFPS is an internationally recognized credential that demonstrates your commitment to fire protection, and distinguishes you as someone who is willing to invest the time and effort to enhance your career. To that end, we have scheduled our exam dates (CFPS Certification is earned by passing the CFPS exam either online or through a written CFPS exam) through 2017 and want to make candidates aware.  


The three-hour open book CFPS exam is comprised of 100 multiple-choice questions as referenced the 20th Edition of the NFPA Fire Protection Handbook.  Upcoming exam dates include:


February 8, 2017 in New Orleans, LA

(application due January 11, 2017)

February 22, 2017 in Houston, TX 

(application due January 25, 2017)

March 8, 2017 in Baltimore, MD

(application due February 8, 2017)

March 22, 2017 in Las Vegas, NV 

(application due February 22, 2017)

April 12, 2017 in Atlanta, GA 

(application due March 15, 2017)

April 26, 2017 in Chicago, IL 

(application due March 29, 2017)

See the complete schedule.


Applications to sit for the written CFPS exam must be processed and approved 4 weeks prior to the exam date. Simply download the CFPS Handbook, and use the application form provided on pages 24 and 25. Completed applications along with supporting documentation and payment information can be scanned and emailed to for processing.


Certified Fire Protection Specialist Primer 2-day Classroom Training is scheduled for the same locations as the exam. With training you receive the 2-volume NFPA Fire Protection Handbook and earn CEUs. While not a test prep training, it does offer practical instruction that will help you quickly locate specific facts within the 2-volume handbook. Click here to be notified of 2017 CFPS Primer dates.


The following documents reporting in the Fall 2016 revision cycle did not receive NITMAMs, were balloted by the NFPA Standards Council, and are now considered Consent Standards.  The issuance date for these Consent Standards is November 11, 2016 with an effective date of December 1, 2016.


These documents are listed as follows:


NFPA 17, Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 17A, Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
NFPA 18, Standard on Wetting Agents
NFPA 18A, Standard on Water Additives for Fire Control and Vapor Mitigation
NFPA 36, Standard on Solvent Extraction Plants

  • TIA 17-1 on section 8.2.8 was also issued and approved for incorporation into the document prior to printing.

NFPA 56, Standard for Fire and Explosion Prevention During Cleaning and Purging of Flammable Gas Piping Systems
NFPA 96, Standard on Ventilation Control and Fire Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations
NFPA 225, Model Manufactured Home Installation Standard
NFPA 252, Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door Assemblies
NFPA 257, Standard on Fire Test for Window and Glass Block Assemblies
NFPA 268, Standard Test Method for Determining Ignitibility of Exterior Wall Assemblies Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
NFPA 269, Standard Test Method for Developing Toxic Potency Data for Use in Fire Hazard Modeling
NFPA 275, Standard Method of Fire Tests for the Evaluation of Thermal Barriers
NFPA 287, Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Flammability of Materials in Cleanrooms Using a Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA)
NFPA 385, Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids
NFPA 475, Recommended Practice for Responding to Hazardous Materials Incidents/Weapons of Mass Destruction
NFPA 501, Standard on Manufactured Housing
NFPA 550, Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree 
NFPA 655, Standard for Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions
NFPA 731, Standard for the Installation of Electronic Premises Security Systems
NFPA 909, Code for the Protection of Cultural Resource Properties - Museums, Libraries, and Places of Worship
NFPA 921, Guide for  Fire and Explosion Investigations
NFPA 1002, Standard for Fire Apparatus Driver/Operator Professional Qualifications
NFPA 1006, Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications
NFPA 1072, Standard for Hazardous Materials/Weapons of Mass Destruction Emergency Response Personnel Professional Qualifications
NFPA 1150, Standard on Foam Chemicals for Fires in Class A Fuels
NFPA 1401, Recommended Practice for Fire Service Training Reports and Records
NFPA 1616, Standard on Mass Evacuation and Sheltering Program
NFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents
NFPA 1911, Standard for the Inspection, Maintenance, Testing, and Retirement of In-Service Automotive Fire Apparatus
NFPA 1983, Standard on Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency Services
NFPA 1986, Standard on Respiratory Protection Equipment for Technical and Tactical Operations

The November 2016 issue of NFPA News, our free monthly codes and standards newsletter, is now available.


NFPA_news.jpgIn this issue:

  • Comments sought on new project on active shooter incident response
  • Nominations due for Standards Council awards
  • Comments sought on proposed Tentative Interim Amendment to NFPA 70
  • Fall 2016 Motions Committee Report available
  • Glossary of Terms
  • Committees soliciting public input
  • Committees seeking members
  • Committee meetings calendar


Subscribe today! NFPA News is a free newsletter, and includes special announcements, notification of public input and comment closing dates, requests for comments, notices on the availability of Standards Council minutes, and other important news about NFPA’s standards development process.

NFPA Training arrives in the Orlando/Lake Buena Vista area the week of December 12-16, 2016 with a full week of electrical, life safety and fire protection training! For everyone who enjoys visiting the local theme parks, NFPA is pleased to announce that it has partnered with Disney® to offer registered attendees specially priced Disney tickets. Tickets must be purchased in advance of arrival.


These tickets are also valid during your pre and post training stays, too. On December 11, 2016, at 9 p.m. this Ticket Store will close, so order your tickets online today! To purchase your tickets over the phone or for more information, please call 407-566-5600. For ticket types, pricing and directions on how to start selecting your Disney Theme Park FastPasses 30 days in advance - Click Here


There is still time to register for any of the 9 classes offered during the week of December 12-16, 2016. All classes will be held at the Hilton Orlando Lake Buena Vista located at 1751 Hotel Plaza Boulevard in Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830.


       CFPS®- Certified Fire Protection Specialist Primer

NFPA 13 Installation of Sprinkler Systems (2016)

NFPA 25 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems (2017)

NFPA 72® National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code (2016) 

NFPA 70® National Electrical Code® (NEC®) (2017) Essentials

NFPA 70E® Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2015)

NFPA 99 Health Care Facilities Code (2012) 

NFPA 101® Life Safety Code® (2015) Essentials 

NFPA 101® Life Safety Code® (2012) Essentials for Health Care Occupancies 


NFPA codes and standards training is available through online training, classroom training, hands-on training, workshops,  customized onsite programs, certification programs, educational conferences, and more.

This all-new 1-day classroom training helps you understand fire door inspection regulations resulting from CMS adoption of the 2012 edition of NFPA 101®.  Learn how to help ensure fire door compliance in health care facilities. Earn .7 CEUs or 7 hours of continuing education units with this special class provided by NFPA and the Door Security & Safety Foundation (DSSF).


NFPA 101 and NFPA 80 Fire Door Inspection for Health Care Facilities 1-Day Classroom Training

December 2, 2016 NFPA Headquarters, Quincy, MA


The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) adoption of the 2012 edition of NFPA 101: Life Safety Code® requires that health care facility operators conduct a yearly inspection of fire door assemblies in accordance with NFPA 80: Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives. Help ensure your facility is prepared for CMS audits by knowing how -- and when -- you need to comply with NFPA 80 rules. 


Ideal for facility managers and led by two Code experts, this one-day course addresses the door types encountered along the egress paths within a health care facility, the door locking means permitted, the thirteen verification points required for the yearly inspection of swinging fire door assemblies, and the skills required to serve as the Qualified Person who is permitted to perform the inspection and testing in accordance with NFPA 80.


This class is special because you'll leave with the knowledge required to help ensure your facility's fire doors are in compliance with the new CMS mandates, and to assist your staff in knowing exactly what CMS surveyors will request during audits.


At then end of the day, you should be able to:

  • Judge the adequacy of door type for each common health care occupancy wall opening in accordance with NFPA 101
  • Apply inspection, testing, and maintenance provisions for fire door assemblies in accordance with NFPA 80


If you are responsible for NFPA 101, NFPA 80, and CMS compliance (for example: facility managers, building owners, consultants, and contractors) find the time to learn from the NFPA and DSSF experts on December 2, 2016 at NFPA Headquarters in Quincy, MA. Learn more now and register.

Phew, I made it.  It's still Friday so this post is in just in time!  I've been fortunate enough to have spent most of the past two days attending the launch of NFPA's new training program: Hands-on 2-Day Training for Facilities Managers – Essentials for Life Safety and Fire Protection.  The training incorporates information and hands on activities for Facility Managers related to NFPA 101, NFPA 80, NFPA 72, NFPA 25, NFPA 3, NFPA 4, and NFPA 96.  It was a great program and a great experience being able to attend the first event!



One of the portions of the program that I was most looking forward to was the education and training on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, as this is a document that I have little background on, but is so relevant to many other NFPA codes and standards.  NFPA 25 establishes the minimum requirements for the periodic inspection, testing, and maintenance of water-based fire protection systems and the actions to undertake when changes in occupancy, use, process, materials, hazard, or water supply that potentially impact the performance of the water-based system are planned or identified.


I learned that the inspections required by NFPA 25 are intended to focus on general wear and tear of the system.  Design evaluations are outside of the scope of an NFPA 25 inspection.  They are not intended to reveal installation flaws or code compliance violations, rather to assess the operating condition of the system.


NFPA 25 is referenced a number of times throughout NFPA 1, Fire Code, and is an important reference for AHJs  just as it is Facility Manager.  Chapter 13 of the Code addresses fire protection systems, including requirements for standpipe systems, automatic sprinklers, fire pumps, water supply, portable fire extinguishers, and fire alarms.  For each of the water-based systems addressed by Chapter 13 a reference to NFPA 25 is provided. In addition, some sections from NFPA 25 are directly extracted into Chapter 13 to provide additional guidance to the code official. 


Examples of Code references to NFPA 25 are as follows: A standpipe system installed in accordance with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. A sprinkler system installed in accordance with this Code shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. Backflow prevention devices shall be inspected, tested, and maintained in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems.


NFPA 25 is a staple for Facility Managers, code officials, and contractors.  NFPA offers a variety of resources on this document including Handbooks, online training, classroom training and additional NFPA 25 specific hands-on training.


Happy Friday! 

The 2016 Edition of 1710 — Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression Operations, Emergency Medical Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Career Fire Departments — has been published.  The new edition includes  3 new suggested minimum staffing levels for different types of occupancies. 


In addition to single family dwellings, staffing levels for Open Air Strip Malls, Garden Style Apartment Occupancies and High Rise Occupancies have been added.  These changes affect fireground staffing levels, but do not change  any of the requirements previously listed in sections; 5.2.3 or 5.2.4.  Please see the attachment for details.


Often when I reiterate that the primary protection scheme must be establishing an electrically work condition (ESWC), a comment is made that a worker is put at risk during this process. The maker of that comment often continues on to defend why they do not require ESWCs in their facility. NFPA 70E® requires that you to conduct risk assessments to determine the hazard, and the risk and severity of possible injury. The standard then requires that you to exhaust the hierarchy of risk controls to protect the worker. This is true whether you intend justify energized work or require that an ESWC be established. If you have determined that there are no hazards, there is nothing to protect the worker from.

If there are hazards, the worker must be protected from injury. Getting to the PPE level in the hierarchy of risk controls means that you have done everything you can to minimize the hazard and the risk of injury. IT DOES NOT MEAN THAT ENERGIZED WORK IS JUSTIFIED. It means that you have determined that there is still a hazard present which requires the worker to wear protective gear when interacting with the equipment under proper justification. The hazard could be shock, arc-flash or both. You will either justify energized work or require that an ESWC be established. I hope the following will clarify the difference of what I mean when an ESWC and justified energized electrical work are mentioned in my blog.

The first reason I make the distinction is for brevity. The reason for and act of establishing an ESWC should be well understood. That a worker is put at risk, must wear protective gear, and must follow work practices are inherently included in this task. To explain this every time is unnecessary. There is no way to establish an ESWC without some risk of exposure to a potential hazard. Until you know for sure that there is no energy present you have to assume that there is energy present. By right, with a proper risk assessment and under the conditions which permit normal operation, establishing an ESWC should remove the hazard before the voltage measurement is made. The ESWC voltage measurement should always be zero. Although establishing an ESWC condition must be considered energized work it actually should not be exposing the worker to an energized circuit. The process is to protect the worker if something has gone wrong.

The second reason is to differentiate between the ESWC tasks and other similar energized work tasks. A voltage measurement may be made for the sole purpose of establishing an ESWC. A voltage measurement may also be made to verify operation of equipment without any intent to put it into an ESWC. Both tasks are exempt from a work permit but there are obvious differences in the two. When establishing an ESWC, the risk of an arc-flash, electrical shock or unanticipated equipment outage is greatly reduced as compared to other tasks. For the ESWC, the worker has limited exposure to the hazard (see first paragraph) whereas for other tasks there is an unlimited exposure to the known hazard or risk of injury. For conditions other than the ESWC the worker is constantly at risk of having an incident occur. Without an ESWC you are using the PPE to protect the worker from a known and present hazard while energized work is being performed. That is a substantial difference from the ESWC task.

The last reason for the distinction is that after the ESWC has been established the worker can remove the PPE. They could conduct the remainder of the work bare handed, wearing every day work clothes without a visibility or hearing impediment. For the other types of energized tasks all the PPE must be worn while the worker is “working” on the equipment (see my two previous blogs regarding the burden of wearing PPE.) The PPE must be worn until the equipment is put back into a normal operating condition. Anyone entering the arc-flash boundary or a shock protection boundary is put at risk and must be protected. The distinction is also made because many voltage measurements for the operation or troubleshooting of equipment evolve into other tasks. Unfortunately this sometimes occurs without generating a new energized work permit covering the new hazard, risk or task. Establishing an ESWC cannot evolve into another task.

I understand that establishing an ESWC is considered to be energized work. Until the task is completed a worker is exposed to hazards and potential injury since there is no assurance that the equipment is properly de-energized. I also understand that establishing an ESWC is justified under infeasibility and that the voltage verification would be included in the work permit exemptions. Up to this point there really is no difference between establishing an ESWC and conducting a voltage measurement. There is a HUGE difference after the voltage measurement is made. Hopefully you see the difference between a worker establishing an ESWC and a worker performing tasks, including other voltage measurements, on energized equipment. Your primary safe work procedure must be to establish an ESWC. Doing otherwise places a worker at risk of injury.

Next time: A rumor that NFPA 70E has a preference on how to conduct a risk assessment.

Fire service needs are extensive for fire departments of all sizes and in every area, including staffing, training, facilities, apparatus, personal protective equipment (PPE); and health and wellness. Overall, the smaller the community protected, the greater the need. These findings are the results of our latest "U.S. Needs Assessment Survey of the U.S. Fire Service," which was officially released today.


Key findings from the report include the following statistics:

  • Forty-nine percent of all fire departments have not formally trained all of their personnel involved in structural firefighting, up from 46 percent in 2010. 
  • Sixty-nine percent of departments reported that some of their self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) equipment is at least 10 years old, up from 55 percent in 2010.
  • More than two-thirds (72 percent) of departments reported that some of their PPE clothing is at lest 10 years old, up from 63 percent in 2010.
  • Two out of five fire stations (43 percent) are at least 40 years old, up from 32 percent in 2001, when the initial needs assessment survey was conducted.
  • Forty-three percent of all fire department engines and pumpers are at least 15 years old, down from 51 percent in 2001.
  • Only one quarter (27 percent) of fire departments have a basic firefighter fitness and health program, slightly down from 30 percent in 2010.


In September 2015, the Needs Assessment survey was sent out to all U.S. fire departments.The intent of the survey was to capture the level of fire department resources and staffing, determine where fire departments have the resources to meet the needs of their communities, and identify gaps.


The full "Needs Assessment of the U.S. Fire Service" report is now available online.

NFPA instructor Mark Hilbert will be teaching two electrical classes at NFPA Headquarters the week of November 14. The 3-day NFPA 70®: National Electrical Code® (NEC®) (2017) Essentials is scheduled for Monday through Wednesday and the 2-day NFPA 70E®: Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2015) is scheduled for Thursday through Friday. NFPA Headquarters is located at 1 Batterymarch Park in Quincy, Massachusetts - south of Boston. Classes begin each day at 8:00 am. - registration is available online or calling 1-800-344.3555. Earn end-of-year CEUs and receive the Codebook with each class.


NFPA 70®: National Electrical Code® (NEC®) (2017) Essentials 

Fully updated for consistency with the 2017 edition of NFPA 70®: National Electrical Code®, the dynamic NEC Essentials Classroom Training features three days of high-impact instruction that helps you ensure safe and compliant electrical installation and design in your work setting. Advance your ability to locate, interpret, and apply requirements in the ever-evolving NEC.


NFPA 70E®: Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2015)

This dynamic, expert-led course uses activities, exercises, videos, job aids, and templates to provide you with the right tools to help set up and follow an electrical safety program, as well as help document safety procedures for compliance with OSHA 1910 Subpart S and OSHA 1926 Subpart K. Whether you're an employer responsible for personnel safety or an employee tasked with identifying and addressing electrical hazards, NFPA 70E training is vital.


NFPA codes and standards training is available through online training, classroom training, hands-on training, workshops,  customized onsite programs, certification programs, educational conferences, and more.

Nearly 75 firefighters, officers, fire marshals, arson investigators and training directors who gathered in Charlotte, North Carolina at the NFPA Responder Forum this week painted a picture of the innovative firefighter. What other characteristics do you think are essential for members of the fire service to embrace smart technology and data-driven decision-making? 


First responders and fire officers from 30 states, Canada and the UK joined industry thought leaders and NFPA staff for a second day of discussions regarding the importance of data for the fire service.  Representatives from thirteen fire organizations were asked by NFPA's Chris Dubay, "How are you going to make a difference?"


Attendees heard a presentation from retired Chief Johnson of FirstNet about the broadband network that will fulfill a fundamental need of the public safety community and bring 21st century tools to tens of thousands of organizations and individuals that respond to emergencies. The NFPA Data Team then explained how the organization has invested in infrastructure, resources and staff to help local fire departments and the fire service, overall, to tell their story. Attendees learned about NFPA's Data Analytics Sandbox and efforts to combine existing resources, new data sources and first responder engagement so that the fire service can improve reporting, efficiencies, communications, incident command, and operations. Throughout the day there was an emphasis on the collection, analysis and sharing of data. The program wrapped with breakout groups providing spirited perspective and feedback on potential data solutions and challenges that are on the horizon.

Common questions asked this week at the 2nd Annual Responder Forum in Charlotte, North Carolina include, "How can I possibly capture and share the information and knowledge that 100+ forward-thinkers from 13 national fire organizations, the NFPA and other experts are exchanging this week about emerging issues?" "How can I engage my peers at the firehouse, on the state level or nationally so that we are, collectively, moving the fire service forward?"


Jim Pauley, president of NFPA asked the audience to embrace emerging issues with a "we" perspective rather than a "me" perspective. Pauley noted that change isn't easy, but the future of firefighting is here and the Responder Forum is dealing with it head on. This video recap of Day 1 of the Responder Forum offers a brief glimpse of yesterday’s discussions regarding smart firefighting, data and the cultural shift needed to drive change in the fire service. Not surprising, the line firefighters, officers, fire marshals, training directors, arson investigators and thought leaders in attendance posed tough questions, offered invaluable perspective, and put in requests for data-driven decision-making tools and smart sensors that will potentially reduce risk and improve operations, incident command, tactics and occupational health. 


If you like what you see and hear on this Responder Forum recap video, check back tomorrow for a snapshot of the intense learning and leadership-thinking taking place on Day 2.  #NFPAResponderForum

NFPA instructors will be in Durham, North Carolina from November 14-18 teaching two NFPA classes at the Hilton Garden Inn Raleigh-Durham/Research Triangle Park at 4620 South Miami Blvd. The Hilton Garden Inn is conveniently located off Interstate 40 only a quick five-minute drive from Raleigh Durham International Airport (RDU). It's centrally located just minutes away from Duke University, NCCU, UNC and NC State, USA Baseball complex, Durham Performing Arts Center, Cary Tennis Park and Durham Bulls Stadium. 


Registration is open for the following classes:

NFPA 70®: National Electrical Code® (NEC®) (2017) Essentials 

Fully updated for consistency with the 2017 edition of NFPA 70®: National Electrical Code®, the dynamic NEC Essentials Classroom Training features three days of high-impact instruction that helps you ensure safe and compliant electrical installation and design in your work setting. Advance your ability to locate, interpret, and apply requirements in the ever-evolving NEC.


NFPA 70E®: Electrical Safety in the Workplace (2015)

This dynamic, expert-led course uses activities, exercises, videos, job aids, and templates to provide you with the right tools to help set up and follow an electrical safety program, as well as help document safety procedures for compliance with OSHA 1910 Subpart S and OSHA 1926 Subpart K. Whether you're an employer responsible for personnel safety or an employee tasked with identifying and addressing electrical hazards, NFPA 70E training is vital.


Learn more about NFPA Training. NFPA codes and standards training is available through online training, classroom training, hands-on training, workshops,  customized onsite programs, certification programs, educational conferences, and more.

Today may be National STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) Day but NFPA engineers Jacqueline Wilmot, Tracy Vecchiarelli, and Chelsea Tuttle do their best year-round to share their passion for all things STEM.


Recently, the three millennials had the opportunity to interact with students at the Easton Middle School, located south of Boston. The trio of NFPA female engineers interacted with 900 students in grades 6-8 during the school’s Pathways to Your Future educational event. They also created two engagement activities to show how exciting STEM learning and STEM careers can be.


During the first activity, students were asked what fire protection and life safety devices were installed in their facility. Once students knew the answer they were asked to point the safety features located in the gym. On the NFPA STEM table there were examples of egress signs, sprinkler heads, smoke detectors and notification devices so that students could see the safety tools up close and ask questions. 


The second activity involved working with the Easton Fire Department to showcase firefighter gear at the NFPA booth. There were tags on each piece of equipment indicating how science is used to keep firefighters safe. The students witnessed the temperature ratings on each item so that they had an understanding of the heat that the equipment is built to with stand.


Sparky the Fire Dog, NFPA’s official mascot, also made an appearance at the STEM event. For more than six decades, Sparky has partnered with fire professionals, teachers, civic organizations, corporations and the media to deliver invaluable fire and life safety educational messages to children and adults alike. During the Easton Middle School event, Spark posed for pictures with students and staff, and helped reinforce the important role that science, technology, engineering and mathematics play in fire safety today.

Casey Grant - NFPA Responder Forum Keynote

I had the pleasure of speaking at the NFPA Responder Forum in Charlotte, NC yesterday. The Forum brought together representatives from 13 key fire organizations, subject matter experts, community leaders, and NFPA staff to address emerging issues.


My keynote presentation, titled "The Fire Fighter of the Future," was a one-hour presentation on smart fire fighting. I discussed the loss of civilian and first responder lives, property and economic stability and how it can be significantly reduced by exploiting new smart fire fighting opportunities. New technology, including cyber-physical systems, innovative building controls, intuitive fire-fighting equipment, and smart apparatus are revolutionizing emergency response. There is much to learn about collecting data from global sensors, processing the information centrally and utilizing the results locally. Smart fire fighting can help save lives and decrease injuries, improve fire fighter occupational health and safety, and enhance operational, fire prevention and protection efficiency.


My keynote was live-streamed during the event for all who pre-registered, and now the full video is available for free for users of Xchange. The following is a video preview:



You can watch the full hour long video for free if you are logged into Xchange.


Haven't registered for Xchange yet? Look for the login link above to login or register for your free account on Xchange. Xchange is more than a blog; it's an online community that connects you with peers worldwide and directly with NFPA staff. Don’t miss out; get involved today!

NFPA's Ray Bizal and incoming Cal Chiefs president Mike DuRee (Long Beach)


Ray Bizal, NFPA SW Regional Director, attended the 2016 California Fire Chiefs Association Annual Conference October 26-28 in Sacramento.  There were plenty of leadership presentations and discussions about fire-based EMS.  NFPA provided an update, where Ray outlined NFPA's new mission and strategies around Big Data, Enforcer and First Responder engagement.  Long Beach Fire Chief Mike DuRee was sworn in as President.  Tracy Hansen, Cosumnes Fire, received the honor of Fire Chief of the Year.

In response to the multiple emergency pipeline and rail car incidents involving crude oil spills that have occurred in North America in recent years, the Research Foundation hosted a two-day workshop, Key Performance Capabilities for Hazardous Materials Incident Commanders, at NFPA headquarters, November 2-3, 2016. The goals of the workshop were to review, clarify and confirm tools for incident commander to manage events involving pipeline and rail car spills of crude, and to develop a competency framework that can be applied to the corresponding professional qualification standards.

Presenters addressed a wide range of issues around effective, safe mitigation of these incidents, with a primary goal of ensuring first responders’ safety. Greg Noll of Noll Associates addressed the management of HazMat incidents, High Hazard Flammable Liquid Trains (HHFT) and Flammable Liquid Pipeline emergency incident command. Chris Powers presented the competency guidelines for HHFT incidents developed by the Transport Canada Emergency Response task force and the NFPA. Following this, James Li, Thunkable gave an overview of the NFPA HAZMAT FLIC app. David Hooton, Ed. D., facilitated the breakout sessions on competencies and capabilities for incident commanders. Ken Willette, NFPA discussed the need for research on the foam application rates for HHFT incidents.



Workshop proceedings will be available soon from the Fire Protection Research Foundation website. Two recently published reports on this topic can be found here.

With the flip of the calendar to November, the time of year has arrived (at least in New England) where we need to inevitably turn on the heat. Fall and winter bring their own set of fire safety challenges and users and code officials must be aware of safe practices to help ensure fires caused by heating devices are kept to a minimum. One of the most common hazards during this time is the use of space heaters.  NFPA 1, Fire Code, provides requirements to regulate the use of these devices:


11.5.3 Portable Electric Heater. The AHJ shall be permitted to prohibit use of portable electric heaters in occupancies or situations where such use or operation would present an undue danger to life or property. Portable electric heaters shall be designed and located so that they cannot be easily overturned. All portable electric heaters shall be listed.Pelonis 1500-Watt Digital Fan Forced Electric Portable Heater

During cold weather, portable electric space heaters are used in many locations, including under desks in offices. Although placing a heater under a desk or table lessens the chance of the heater being easily overturned, the heater also can easily be forgotten. A heater that is left on for an extended time can overheat combustible materials that might also be stored under the desk or table. Managers of facilities that allow the use of electric space heaters should be instructed to remind employees to shut them off at the end of the day and keep combustible material away from the heater.

In addition, because of the amount of electric current drawn by space heaters, electric heaters should be used only
where they can be plugged directly into appropriate receptacles or extension cords of adequate current capacity. (See 11.1.5 for requirements addressing extension cords.)


The AHJ is permitted to prohibit the use of space heaters where an undue danger to life or property exists. The AHJ can use past inspection findings, such as portable heaters that were left turned on and unattended, fire incidents, and other reasons to prohibit the use of such heaters.


For additional information on space heater safety, check out NFPA's Safety Tip Sheet.


Don't miss another #FireCodeFridays blog! Get notifications straight to your email inbox by subscribing here! And you can always follow me on Twitter for more updates and fire safety news @KristinB_NFPA

Photo: Jim Morrissey


The NFPA Standards Council is in receipt of a New Project Initiation Request for the development of an ANSI Accredited Standard addressing preparedness and response to active shooter scenarios and incidents. The request seeks an NFPA standard to address appropriate training, responder interagency coordination protocol, and the identification of minimal personal protective equipment appropriate for responders to active shooter incidents.

If the New Project Initiation is ultimately approved by the Standards Council, a new Technical Committee may be established and charged with the development of appropriate requirements related to active shooter incident preparedness and response. Activities within the scope of the Technical Committee are anticipated to focus on:

•active shooter incident training for responders;
•personal protective equipment appropriate for responding to active shooter scenarios;
•response protocol and procedures across multiple responder segments; and
•measurable operational objectives.


NFPA is currently soliciting comments from interested organizations and individuals to gauge whether support exists for standards development addressing preparedness and response to active shooter incidents. NFPA specifically seeks input on the following:

•Are you, or your organization, in favor of the development of an NFPA Standard pertaining to active shooter incident response and preparedness?
•Please state your reason(s) for supporting or opposing such standards development.
•Are you or your organization interested in applying for membership on the Technical Committee if established by the Standards Council? If yes, please submit an application* in addition to your comments in support of the project.


Please submit all comments, in support or opposition to active shooter incident response and preparedness standards development to NFPA by the deadline below.


Submit public comments

Deadline: January 17, 2017


*Applications being accepted for purposes of documenting applicant interest in committee participation.  Acceptance of applications by NFPA does not guaranty or imply the Standards Council will ultimately approve standards development activity on this subject matter.

Firefighters work in varied and complex environments that increase their risk of on-the-job death and injury. NFPA estimates that 68,085 firefighter injuries occurred in the line of duty in 2015. An estimated 29,130 (42.8%)  of all firefighter injuries occurred during fireground operations.


Each year, NFPA studies firefighter deaths and injuries to provide national statistics on their frequency, extent and characteristics. A better understanding of how these fatalities, nonfatal injuries and illnesses occur can ultimately help identify corrective action, and in turn could help minimize the inherent risks.


NFPA’s latest report, U.S. Firefighter Injuries - 2015, includes among its results:

*The total number of 2015 firefighter injuries

*Firefighter injuries by type of duty

*Trends in firefighter injuries and rates

*The number of exposures to hazardous conditions

*The number of collisions involving fire department vehicles

And much more.


Read the full report and also see two other reports related to firefighter injuries, An Analysis of Volunteer Firefighter Injuries and Patterns of Firefighter Fireground Injuries.

Filter Blog

By date: By tag: