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15 Posts authored by: jmontes Employee

President Trump has declared the week of May 19-25, 2019 National EMS Week.  The theme for this year’s week is “EMS Strong: Beyond the Call.” Those words convey an incredibly powerful message about the EMS profession. EMS goes beyond the 911 call. Yes, EMS is about excellent patient care in an emergency, but it’s also so much more. It’s something that takes time, skill, practice, passion, and compassion far beyond the scope of a normal job. It’s a responsibility to care for your community and for your fellow responders that doesn’t end when your shift is over.  Every day they provide highly skilled medical care, but they do more, they are a social worker, a problem solver, a liaison to their community, and sometimes most importantly, the shoulder we cry on in our worst moments.   This year we are recognizing the continuously expanding breadth and scope of what they are providing and their importance as a valuable and equal responder group stakeholder.

Over the past 8 years, in concert with the changing face of healthcare, EMS has become an even more critical cog in the healthcare infrastructure of our communities.  Regardless of service type (fire based, third service, private, hospital based, non-profit, etc.) EMS is presently the #2 (law enforcement is #1) reason for 911 activation in the United States.  Today EMS providers are also part of specialized units like SWAT, technical rescue, and hazardous materials teams.  As a nation, we are currently in the process of growing and incorporating our EMS provider’s roles in public health and community based manner. This involves using EMS to divert people from needing to use medical facilities and providing medical care in a more streamlined fashion at the home.  These services will reduce the strain that growing numbers of hospitalizations are creating in our healthcare systems.  This may significantly reduce cost and wait times for services as EMS will assist in the maintenance of the patient care, not just in the acute and transport realms. EMS has always been considered the eyes and ears of the Physician, even the term paramedic means “next to the Physician” when you use the Latin routes of the word.  These community based healthcare programs or community paramedic programs, as they are commonly known, move EMS into the realm of other functions and Physician’s eyes and ears outside of the emergency world.  In 2019 we will release NFPA 451; Guide for Community Health Care Programs.  This document will help EMS Systems regardless of their service type with expanding their roles in the overall Health Care community.  States and authorities having jurisdiction, may also find the guide useful in the creation of scope of practice models and new regulations

In just the past two years the NFPA has focused on providing more informed support and service to our responder stakeholders as a whole.  Although many in law enforcement, 911 centers, and EMS aren’t necessarily as familiar with our efforts as the fire service is, the NFPA strives to make all responder’s safer and unified and has done so for many years.  In just the last two we’ve increased our non-fire based EMS participation in technical committees by a factor of 10.  In 2018 we released two new groundbreaking standards with the participation of the entire EMS community.  Those were NFPA 2400; Standard for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) Used for Public Safety Operations and NFPA 3000tm; Standard for an Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response (ASHER) Program.

For EMS week 2019, The NFPA will post links to our different tools and resources, these provide information and knowledge that will help our EMS systems and providers.  Each day of EMS has a theme and below are each day’s theme and resources the NFPA provides that fit that theme:

MondayEMS Education Day Check out our free Alternative Vehicle Safety Training for EMS Personnel and use your 30% discount for the NFPA 3000tm Active Shooter Hostile Event Response Program, Plan, Respond, Recover badging program!

Tuesday - EMS Safety Day – Create a free account and view safety standards that can help keep you safe in your job every day like NFPA 1999, NFPA 1500, and NFPA 3000tm

Wednesday - EMS for Children day – A little known fact is that the facility design and safety requirements for acute care pediatric centers are found in NFPA 99, create a free account and check it out today!

Thursday - Save-A-Life Day (CPR & Stop the Bleed) – Our nation’s fire and EMS responders are key cogs in helping educate our communities.  The NFPA supports these critical efforts in our community healthcare and community risk reduction standards and guides. Separately, with the recommendations in  NFPA 3000tm, we are seeing more and more communities teach “Stop the Bleed” and have seen bleeding control kits spreading into the emergency planning for occupancies such as schools and airports (the picture I sent is from Nashville airport).

FridayEMS Recognition Day – Today we celebrate you! Our nations EMS Providers no matter your method of service (volunteer, private, fire based, etc.) we thank you for what you do for our communities and each other every day.  The NFPA also appreciates the efforts you make to improve and increase standards, your participation on technical committees, and you inputs and comments, are what drives our standards development process. (I recommend using the group pic with me in it)

Thank you for all that you do for our communities and for each other.  The efforts of our EMS responders, in my opinion, are the backbone of what make our communities strong.  The continued growth of the EMS role, the collaboration with other responder partners and Health Care community, and working with us at the NFPA to develop standards in order to support the profession is how we at the NFPA believe we support making EMS strong and we are stronger together at the call and beyond the call.

One year ago this week, NFPA released NFPA 3000TM (PS), Standard for an Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response (ASHER) Program – the world’s first guidance to help communities establish unified mass casualty preparedness, response, and recovery plans.

The impetus behind the development of this standard was the same disgust that we all felt this week when we heard that even more carnage had unfolded in California and North Carolina. Yet, with each horrifying incident, many still ask, “When will the insanity stop? What can we do to end these senseless events? Is anyone working on this? Am I becoming numb to these unforgivable incidents?”

The most important answer to the above is yes, people are working to effect change. BUT we can do much more to prepare cities, towns, campuses, and the many people it takes to safely manage these communities. In fact, we need to do a lot more. We need more people recognizing they can’t fight this fight alone. We need more people engaging with key stakeholders to define, communicate, and practice the steps outlined in NFPA 3000. We need more policymakers supporting legislation so that authorities have the manpower, money, and resources to make a difference. And we need the public to know what steps they can take to better protect themselves and loved ones.

Many organizations and outlets recognized this past year that they needed to learn more and share more about ASHER strategies. NFPA received requests from the media, industry influencers, first responders, school officials, emergency managers, members of Congress, state legislators, security professionals, facility managers, healthcare sources, and building security contacts who wanted to learn more about the standard. Engaging audiences via news coverage, webinars, podcast, trade articles, conference sessions, collaborations, and discussions was extremely important in year one of NFPA 3000. I can say with great confidence that this standard is serving as a springboard for different jurisdictions and authorities to holistically plan, react to, and survive man-made catastrophes.

One of the most memorable efforts this past year was a trio of events encouraged by Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker. Three filled-to-capacity school active shooter symposiums were co-hosted by the state fire marshal and NFPA, just as the Baker administration was lobbying for $72 million in funding for hostile event and recovery resources. The symposiums brought together law enforcement, fire, EMS, school leaders, and policymakers to ensure that officials in different communities throughout the Commonwealth were proactively working together on ASHER strategies. Representatives from more than half of Massachusetts’ 351 cities and towns attended one of the symposiums. A similar free active shooter/hostile event program, with Michele Gay who lost her daughter during the Sandy Hook tragedy as the keynote, is being offered for school officials, responders, emergency management personnel, and facility professionals at the annual NFPA Conference & Expo® in San Antonio this June.

Over the last year, we have seen people who may have thought these incidents were unlikely taking proactive steps to prepare for potential events, as reported by The Wall Street Journal. NFPA 3000 can help with those preparedness methods because it sets the foundational minimums for developing or vetting a comprehensive holistic ASHER program. In ways large and small, individuals can also play a role in elevating safety. For example:


  • A member of the public may want to contact local leaders to see if NFPA 3000 safety benchmarks are being considered and applied in their communities, or to determine how things work at their schools should an unwanted intruder show up.
  • Adults and children can learn Stop the Bleed – so that they are empowered to administer critical care before a victim bleeds out. Run Hide Fight is also vital information for our world today; but it’s important to remember that this guidance is not necessarily reflective of the order of actions, but more about options based on the scenario.
  • First responders can refer to the standard so that they can train on the competencies for their role or help conduct risk assessments at facilities and venues.
  • Hospital staff can use the NFPA 3000 to coordinate with first responders and establish lines of communication that are regularly tested. The standard also provides a framework for recovery planning and victim identification planning - two critical elements that are often overlooked.
  • School leaders and their building staff can use information in the standard’s 20 chapters to facilitate conversations with law enforcement, fire, EMS, building contacts, emergency managers, and elected officials.

The point is, it’s a whole new world. We have to keep asking questions, learning and teaching to make a difference. NFPA staff and the Technical Committee that developed NFPA 3000 has done just that since last May; and those insights are currently being incorporated into the next edition of the standard, as we speak. For example, additional considerations for the standard on the table include guidance on types of medical equipment and the contents of medical kits for occupancies, the public, and responders; more detailed planning and risk assessment parameters; increased recovery planning including an annex with informational references and resources; and additional ASHER training and exercise considerations.


NFPA will continue to bring attention to active shooter/hostile event preparedness, response, and recovery. We hope that you will use the great videos, training, articles, fact sheets related to active shooter and hostile events that we have developed to help you engage audiences; that you will consider joining us next month in June at the free active shooter/hostile event program in Texas; and that you will submit your ideas for changes to


We all play a role in keeping people, property, first responders, and ourselves safe. NFPA 3000 shows us that we can, and should, do more to protect against unwanted threats.

A national proclaimed recognition week (second week in April) was established in 1991 honor the 9-1-1 Public Safety Telecommunicators. This year, April 14 - 20 is dedicated to the men & women who serve as public safety call takers & dispatchers in our 9-1-1 centers. We at the NFPA thank all who stay on the line and help us in our times of greatest needs.  Many don’t realize the challenges our 911 telecommunicators face every day.  They are the first to know when something has happened and attempt to remotely make calm out of chaos, gather critical information; including information to help protect the safety of first responders, and then provide lifesaving instructions over the phone that could potentially save someone’s life.   

In 2009, I had major back surgery that would limit my ability to work on an ambulance for a significant amount of time. For the better part of the next two years, I worked as a dispatcher, 911 call taker, and C-Med radio operator (coordinating regional ambulance to hospital communications).  In the center where I worked, we averaged processing approximately 140,000 calls for service a year. I can honestly say, the time I spent in dispatch made a huge difference in my life and career. It opened my eyes to other divisions of my department and other things I could do to serve my community.  It afforded me the opportunity to learn different operational and managerial roles that would benefit me later on. But most importantly it taught me to use other senses and critical communication and thinking skills to process information and emergency scenes without being able to see or touch the patients. In the long run this improved my leadership, communication, and organizational skills.

While in dispatch I managed many major multiple casualty incidents from the dispatcher chair. I also took calls from women in active labor and coached them through what to do until help arrived, I talked members of the public through Hands-only CPR, and even talked with many people who were contemplating suicide and tried to keep their attention and focus on staying with me until help arrived.  I always thought being an EMT and going through the emotions of the challenges we face every day was hard.  I didn’t know how good we had it until I went into dispatch!  It’s all the same challenges and feelings, but you can’t see or feel them for yourself. You have to hope that people are following your instructions and learning the results of your efforts is extremely rare. This puts an incredible mental strain on you because while most don’t realize it, our dispatch professionals are there with all other first responders on the very same front lines trying to help other in need. Their ability to quickly multi-task, get resources moving, and provide guidance in a fog of confusion, is a most admirable and critical skill for the safety of the public.

One of the things I’m most proud of in our work at the NFPA, is that long before I ever came along, the NFPA has been working with the dispatch community to incorporate them into the codes and standards we develop. This is indicative of the critical nature of the work of our dispatchers and the absolute fact that they too are first responders.

Through NFPA 1221; Standard for the Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Emergency Services Communications Systems we set the minimum standard to which our dispatch centers and Public Answering Points are designed and used. Through NFPA 1061; Standard for Public Safety Telecommunications Personnel Professional Qualifications we set the training and educational minimums that telecommunicators must demonstrate in order to perform their jobs. More recently, we have looked at the expanded role of our dispatch centers and personnel play in active shooter and hostile event incidents them having their own chapter in NFPA 3000; Standard for an Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response (ASHER) Program and their expanded medical screening role in order to reduce the burden of non-emergent medical calls in our 911 EMS systems in NFPA 451; Guide for Community Healthcare Programs.  Today and every day, we at the NFPA thank and appreciate those professionals on the other side of the line from all of us who stand ready to help complete strangers in their times of need.  Happy Public Safety Telecommunicators Week!!!!

The NFPA has released the third and final training module in a series of  learning programs surrounding the new NFPA 3000: Standard for an Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response (ASHER) Program. The Recover program provides registrants with the critical knowledge and information needed to maintain business continuity, coordinate with hospitals, and establish key benchmarks so that communities can rebound quickly if a mass casualty event unfurls in their area.  
Participants can choose to take one of three distinct modules (Plan, Respond and Recover) and earn a single badge; or complete all three modules of NFPA 3000 training for a comprehensive overview. Those opting for the latter, will receive an NFPA 3000 Program Specialist badge, signifying that they have been trained in the content and implementation of the new standard. 
The four main components of NFPA 3000 are: whole community; unified command; integrated response; and planned recovery. These themes are woven throughout the fabric of the first-of-its-kind standard. The  training covers each of NFPA 3000’s 20 chapters so that different stakeholders have a strong understanding of what needs to be done before, during and after an incident to reduce harm. Throughout the document and the training, the importance of working together is accentuated. 
With hostile events dotting our news feeds on a regular basis, we are reminded almost daily that our world is different and we need to be well-prepared for new challenges. NFPA 3000 and NFPA’s 3-part  learning program were designed to help communities deal with new threats. 
Do you have a unified ASHER plan in place in your city or town?


We, at the NFPA, work closely with EMS providers whose dedication to their patients and their colleagues often goes unrecognized every day. As we celebrate another EMS Week, we want to thank each of you, your families and all the people who make it possible for you to help people day in and day out.


The theme of EMS Week this year is "Stronger Together," which recognizes not only the bonds we form with our fellow EMS providers, but also the importance of collaboration. Whether working with colleagues in your organization, partners within your community, or agencies in neighboring jurisdictions, we truly are stronger EMS communities when we do things together as a team.


At the NFPA, we know this firsthand - thanks to our work with many organizations supporting EMS efforts across the nation. As members of Technical Committees on EMS, Cross Functional Emergency Preparedness and Response, Small Unmanned Aerial Systems, Ambulance Design and Construction, Hazardous Materials Response, and many more relevant topics, the EMS community helps to prescribe and inform NFPA's life safety efforts every day.  This year we have completed the draft of NFPA 451; Guide for Community Healthcare Programs, which will help EMS systems evaluate and partner with organizations so that, together, they can expand services and provide community paramedicine/ mobile integrated healthcare programs.  The EMS community was also incredibly vital in the creation of NFPA 3000 (PS); Standard for An Active Shooter/Hostile Event Response (ASHER) Program.  This first of its kind body of knowledge is already helping authorities every day - and EMS providers are very much a part of this planning, response and recovery process!


We encourage you to embrace this year's theme, "Stronger Together".  We believe that our EMS providers play a vital role in society; and our association is grateful for the insight and input that is so readily offered by the EMS community when it comes to updating existing documents and creating new guides and standards that increase coordination, safety, and the capability of our emergency responders.


From all of us at the NFPA, thank you for everything you do every day.

In my recent NFPA Live I discussed the upcoming release of NFPA 3000; Preparedness and Response to Active Shooter and/or Hostile Events. The purpose of NFPA 3000 is to identify the minimum program elements necessary for organizing, managing, and sustaining an active shooter and/or hostile event response program and to reduce or eliminate the risks, effect, and impact on an organization or community affected by these events. 
I talked about the purpose for developing the draft, who is involved, what it contains, and how you can get involved in its further development.
The document addresses the following areas and others:
• Risk assessment
• Planning
• Resource management
• Organizational deployment
• Incident management
• Facility readiness
• Finance
• Communications
• Competencies for law enforcement
• Competencies for fire and EMS
• Personal protective equipment
• Training
• Community education
• Information sharing
• Readiness of receiving hospitals
• Recovery
Public Input Closing Date is February 23, 2018. If you'd like to participate in the process by submitting a public input, you can do so here.
John Montes is an Emergency Services Specialist at NFPA, and Staff Liasion for NFPA 3000.  NFPA Live is an interactive video series in which members of NFPA staff address some of the most frequent topics they receive through the Member's Only Technical Question service. If you are currently an NFPA Member you can view the entire video by following this link. If you're not currently a member, join today!


In my recent NFPA Live I discussed the release of the 2018 version of NFPA 1582; Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire Departments. Specifically I talked about the layout of the document, some of the requirements that have been updated, and I debunked some of the myths surrounding it.


One of the myths I often hear about this standard is:  If you're not a firefighting candidate, 1582 requires you to be held to the same standards as a firefighting candidate. This is false. Watch the video clip above to see my full answer!


John Montes is an Emergency Services Specialist at NFPA, and Staff Liasion for NFPA 1582.  NFPA Live is an interactive video series in which members of NFPA staff address some of the most frequent topics they receive through the Member's Only Technical Question service. If you are currently an NFPA Member you can view the entire video by following this link. If you're not currently a member, join today!


Since 1986, the NFPA has been publishing NFPA 1403, Standard on Live Fire Training Evolutions. As we prepare for the release of the 2018 version of the standard I'm often asked what has changed since 2012 and how best to apply the standard to ensure a safer training environment.  


A few weeks back I covered these topics during my NFPA Live, an exclusive for NFPA Members. During the live event I got this follow-up question.  I'm now sharing it with you. I hope you find some value in it.



NFPA Live is an interactive video series in which members of NFPA staff address some of the most frequent topics they receive through the Member's Only Technical Question service. If you are currently an NFPA Member you can view the entire video by following this link. If you're not currently a member, join today!

October 3rd marks my 1year anniversary at the NFPA.  It has been incredibly rewarding to work in a place where the mission is to help responders perform their work in a safe and organized manner.  I am grateful for the opportunities afforded to me and to the technical committee volunteers who have helped me along the way.  One of my biggest and most rewarding challenges has been to work on the development of NFPA 3000, Standard for Preparedness and Response to Active Shooter and/or Hostile Events.  On Friday the 29th I wrote the following blog, but so much has happened since that I want to acknowledge some things first:


  • The tragedy in Las Vegas was a stark reminder these types of hostile assailant attacks are on the rise and will continue. There is a need for our communities to prepare and our responders to be safe, organized, well-practiced, and unified in their handling of this incidents.
  • Having a member of our technical committee from Las Vegas Fire and Rescue, I know there will be many lessons learned, but the Las Vegas responders have been preparing for this day and they did an amazing job.
  • As already chronicled, the responders will need the support of their community and fellow responders for many years to come after what they have experienced.


Before moving on, I want to share the sentiment from one of the Orlando responders that was sent to the Technical Committee members for NFPA 3000 yesterday: “After waking up to the horrific news of another record-breaking mass shooting to our public in Las Vegas, it just solidifies, even more, the great work the NFPA 3000 TEAM is creating. Thank you for all for your insight and professional experience to the active shooter standard. We all work quickly to resolve each and every potential that this new standard should cover for a purpose much greater than anything else we have worked on in the Public Safety sector. To protect our responders and the citizens we serve, the concise standard that will evolve and will help many prepare for their worst day. Not everyone can be part of this assemblage, the group that creates the Standard or the group that has "been through this hell"...some can claim both. This is a club that wants no new members. Thank you for the work you do, the profession you support, and our shared goal to make the worst day safer and more prepared for.”


I couldn’t have said it better myself! Now on to what I wrote about last week’s experience:


During the week of September 25th, a Technical Committee of over 50 experts and guests from across the country met in Orlando, Florida to continue the development of the draft for NFPA 3000, Standard for Preparedness and Response to Active Shooter and/or Hostile Events.  


During the meeting the Technical Committee reviewed various active shooter/hostile events, using a 30,000 foot perspective, to determine what communities absolutely need to properly prepare and respond to, and eventually recover from these events. The committee formed task groups and developed over 20 chapters that address different components of preparedness, response, and recovery. Comprised of representatives from law enforcement, fire, and other impacted response agencies, the committee focused on the need for interoperability using common language, clear and open communication, safety among peers, and resolving the incident in a unified and effective manner. What it is not, however, is a tactical or strategy document. There is too much variation to standardize local tactics, and frankly, no one wants the bad guys to know what our tactics are. 


The group broke the draft down into chapters that started with how communities prepare, what should be in their plans, and what they should teach to their residents and responders. Then they moved to leading to incident management requirements, competencies for responders, training and recovery components. One of the strengths of this Technical Committee is its experience. Having responders present who were part of the responses to recent occurrences of these incidents really was beneficial in that they were able to tell us where the gaps are that could be filled and the things that they wish they had in place ahead of time.



After each day’s meeting adjournment, our gracious hosts from the City of Orlando and Orange County, Florida, arranged for different non-meeting related activities for the group. One day, they received a presentation from the fire chiefs detailing the attack at the Pulse Nightclub. They took almost 3 hours out of their time to detail the incident and take questions from the group.  A big take away was that they identified the absolute need from the command level for NFPA 3000.  They feel having something that is cross-functional insures that they are on the same sheet of music as law enforcement and emergency management and would have helped them immensely with their response to the incident. This isn’t to say that they weren’t that night, but it is to say that there were many instances of confusion and lack of cohesion where compliance of the potential components of NFPA 3000 will (and can) help mitigate those occurrences from happening in the future. 


On the last day of meetings a group formed a makeshift caravan and traveled to the Pulse Nightclub site. I have been privy to several presentations and briefings on the events of that night. I have seen videos and heard the 911 calls and radio traffic. I can also most assuredly tell you that none of it does justice to what is still there at the site. The messages of hope, loss, and love at the site left some very burly battle hardened operators a little choked up out there. Coincidentally we even met the owner who took time to speak to us and really touched all of our hearts with her dignity and strength. NFPA 3000 will truly be a standard that not only serves as a tool for response, but a tool for our communities.

5 things a facility manager should consider when preparing, responding, and recovering from a major hurricane
We have just experienced two major hurricanes here in the United States over the last several weeks, and are sure that there will be more natural disasters in our future. The responsibility for preparedness is a whole-community approach that rests on the shoulders of many stakeholders.  Each segment of the community has a role in prevention, mitigation, response, continuity and recovery that can be addressed in a holistic manner.  Facility managers are a vital cog in this chain. NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity Programs, one of NFPA’s most widely implemented standards, establishes a common set of criteria that sets a foundation for disaster management, emergency management, and business continuity programs using a total program approach (plus the PDF version of this standard is free to download!). 
Here are five things to consider as you prepare, respond, and recover from a major hurricane:   
1) The most important thing to do is prepare and know you are part of a larger community and you need to help each other.  As outlined in chapter 5 of NFPA 1600, Standard on Disaster/Emergency Management and Business Continuity/Continuity of Operations Programs conduct a risk assessment, business impact analysis, and resource needs assessment before the event occurs. This will give you an idea of what you are facing and what you will need prior to the event.  
2) Know your stakeholders; These are the people that utilize your facility every day. Poll them to know what their plans are and let them know what yours are. Keep track of those that are staying and make sure to account for anyone with access and functional needs. 
3) Talk to your neighbors; keep track of local emergency management’s instructions and follow them. If you have capabilities and services to offer, let them know. Also, if you have resource needs, let them know. Being a good neighbor for others may save the life of one of your stakeholders or that of one of your neighbors in the event of a disaster. 
4) Communicate;  As early as possible, activate your plan and make sure that your stakeholders are aware of it.  Assure that they know their roles and expectations if any.  If you are operating a facility that is a critical infrastructure location, make sure that your on-duty staff have (to the best of their ability) secured the safety of their family and pets so that they can focus on the tasks at hand. Be sure that your support of this effort is communicated to them.  For more see NFPA 1600 Annex K.
5.) Trust the plan, but don’t let it hold you back; Even the best and smartest emergency preparedness planner can’t think of everything, and we know that mother nature isn’t interested in their best intentions.  Your plan may be a script, but you will need to be flexible and make decisions and improvisations based on the need of the event.   
At the end of the day remember:   
  • The time of the emergency is not when you should be exchanging business cards for the first time with your local partners. 
  • Take care of you and your own first, so you can focus on the rest. 
  • All plans and activities are fluid and dynamic based on the needs of the event.    


Photo courtesy of the United States Navy.

FEMA recently posted an article pointing to a report on violence against EMS practitioners. It shows what EMS are up against in the field; yet as a 16-year EMS veteran I can’t help but think no matter how thorough the report is, it only tells half the story.


EMS professionals often don’t report the violence they encounter on the job. Physical abuse can take many forms. Assaults can be minor or may not result in injury to the provider. Some are downright deadly like an incident in Arkansas last year when a volunteer firefighter was fatally shot while on an EMS call. Others are fatal for the assailant, as was the case in 2016 when a Boston Police officer shot and killed a mentally unstable man that was assaulting officers and the EMS workers who were trying to help him. The same day that FEMA posted their article about EMS violence, the district attorney in Boston ruled that the police officers were justified in killing that man.


In my experience riding the ambulance, managing emergency services for large municipalities and as the NFPA liaison responsible for engaging with stakeholders about EMS best practices and health and wellness, I’ve learned that many providers do not report instances of violence for many of the same reasons that I didn’t. During my career, I was assaulted several hundred times by patients but only reported about 15 incidents (because I suffered some form of injury) and only went to court six times when charges were pressed.


It is believed, although it has not been studied yet, that not reporting violence against EMS is widespread throughout the United States. Providers don’t report assaults to law enforcement or supervisors, so oftentimes administrators are unaware of the magnitude of this problem.  There are many individual factors why EMS workers don’t report violent incidents. Here are the ones that influenced my decisions:

  •  I felt sympathetic towards the sick and impaired, and didn’t want to get them in trouble 
  • I was assaulted by patients who were suspected to be under the influence of some controlled substance, and law enforcement was hesitant to charge them because they wanted them to be medically cleared
  • I may have not had a visible injury
  • There was no injury
  • I felt peer pressure to act like I was tough and that the assault didn’t affect me
  • I simply accepted it as “part of the job”


The EMS violence study is a tremendous starting point - although it only focuses on EMS workers employed by large, urban fire departments. This is likely due to lack of data. There are some noteworthy observations from the study including:

  • EMS workers are more likely to be assaulted by patients than their firefighter colleagues
  • Gender does not determine who gets assaulted
  • There is a disconnect between EMS workers in the field and the dispatchers who collect information about the medical emergency
  • There is a general lack of knowledge about preventing violent EMS attacks. Free online training opportunities, like this National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health course, can help
  • Signage in the back of ambulances stating “it is a felony to assault a first responder” may deter patients from assaulting EMS workers. These are used in Canada and the United Kingdom. They show support for EMS workers
  • Computer-aided dispatch (CAD) systems should utilize a flag system so that dispatchers can alert EMS workers about prior patient-initiated violence at the location. Urban departments in Dallas and Montgomery County, Pennsylvania have this feature
  • Fire departments can reduce provider stress levels by looking into more personnel to ensure that EMS workers have breaks during their shifts to encourage occupational recovery
  • Management should support EMS providers during legal proceedings after an assault occurs


The strength of the data out there clearly demonstrates a need for further and deeper exploration into this subject.  Another consideration is encouraging EMS workers to report violent incidents to programs such as the CLIR EMS self-reporting tool so that more robust data can be collected.

Today marks the one year anniversary of the attack at the Pulse Nightclub in Orlando.  At the NFPA, we honor the 49 innocent individuals that were taken that day by marking this week as the beginning of the development of NFPA 3000: Standard for Preparedness and Response to Active Shooter and/or Hostile Events


The Pulse incident, along with several others throughout the past year, highlight a need for first responders, emergency managers, facilities, hospitals, and communities as a whole to be on the same page when these incidents occur.  The resilience displayed in places like Orlando, Boston, London, Connecticut, and many others show that we as a community can and must work together to ensure that we never allow terror or evil to win.  NFPA 3000 will give communities a resource to be prepared in the event that the unthinkable happens.


The process of developing NFPA 3000 began with a request by Fire Chief Otto Drozd III from Orange County Florida in October of 2016.  Since then, we have sought public comment and committee applications to form a Technical Committee to develop the Standard.  In just four short months we received over 100 positive comments and committee applications.  In April of 2017, the NFPA Standards Council unanimously approved the new Standard and Technical Committee.


The Technical Committee is chaired by Richard Serino, recently retired COO of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, former Chief of Boston EMS, and current faculty member at Harvard University.  The Committee has representatives from the DHS, DOJ, FBI, International Association of Police Chiefs, International Association of Fire Chiefs, National Association of EMTs, IAFF, EMS Labor Alliance, Hospitals, Facility Managers, Private Security, Universities, and more.  This broad group collectively brings over 200 years of experience to the table, many of which include experience responding to active shooter/hostile incidents.


On June 9, 2017 Chief Drozd authored an editorial in the Orlando Sentinel highlighting his reasons for requesting that the Standard be developed.  One important issue that he points out is that there are numerous guidance documents from individual organizations, but currently no consensus standard.  He also speaks to the inspiration he felt in the aftermath of the Pulse attack and his motivation for wanting a tool for others to use so that more lives can be saved in the future.  We honor those that were lost at the Pulse with this work and hope that others may live on thanks to the lessons learned and their memories.  As Chief Drozd says, “So that Others May Live.” 


The NFPA and the Technical Committee need the help of the public to make this the best standard it can be.  Anyone can come to a meeting or make inputs and comments to the draft once it is posted.  If you would like to know more and follow along with the development of NFPA 3000, please go to and then click "receive email alerts" to receive updates on the development process as they are posted.  Its a big world, let's protect it together!

In Part 1 of this series we discussed a novel example of a total wellness program.  In Part 2 we discussed ways you and your department can implement a Total Wellness Program in your service starting tomorrow.  This time we will talk about the future.  One of the really cool things the @NFPA does is send our staff liaisons out as much as is possible and reasonable so we can learn what new practices and resources are out there and bring that information back to our technical committees.  Our technical committees ultimately decide what is put into a code or standard but even if somethings don’t make it in, we as an organization want to make sure we are sharing that knowledge and information with the world. In my very short time with the association I have been so lucky to have been able to travel and learn from innovators all over the Country.  There are some really amazing things on the horizon for our emergency responders.  From innovative technology that uses the biometric sensors in smart phones to better track exposure times, to resiliency programs that focus on not just the responder but their families as well and create a healthy means for them to work through their stresses and issues.


One of the coolest concepts that is being discussed is the “Tactical Athlete.”  This is the best term I have ever heard to describe our responders.  Now you may hear this and think it “tactical, like totally tough and kick in doors and chase bad guys” but that’s not what they mean by this.  The context in which this was first presented is in the world of injury management.  Traditionally, if a responder gets hurt, they go to see an occupational health physician and that doctor refers them to specialists, but manages their injury and rehabilitation.  In the world of the tactical athlete, injuries are managed by sports medicine physicians.  This is because a first responder isn’t like someone who works in an office environment.  Occupational doctors see patients and try to best manage their care to get them back to their specific occupation.  For the most part, not always but mostly, these are people who work in an office or manufacturing who have a repetitive use injury and need to be rehabbed just enough to get back to work. 


Our first responders don’t fit into these traditional occupational boxes.  While there are many occupational doctors who have taken time and made effort to understand

the needs of responders and looked at innovating their care, there is still things that a sports medicine doctor has access to that they don’t.  Our responders sometimes do repetitive motion (ie; EMTs lifting and moving patients), go from complete rest to running upstairs and ladders (ie; fire fighters), and even go from an excited state to a completely aerobic state (ie; police officers in a foot chase).  All of this variation and stress takes a toll on the body similar to an athlete who exercise and makes repetitive motions for their skill but also has moments of complete change.  Your body must be flexible and maintained in such a way that it can handle these stresses. This flexibility and maintenance is what the sports medicine doctors specialize in.  A sports medicine physician also can reduce the time in which a responder is out of work. They do this by accelerating the time it normally takes to get imaging, make care decisions, and perform procedures.  In the traditional model, you would still have to see an orthopedist but after being referred and possibly treated by an occupational physician first.  There are less layers in the new model.


I spent some time with a sports medicine physician recently discussing this model.  Dr. Jennifer Luz is a sports medicine physician with Steward Healthcare in Boston and is one of the team physicians for the Boston Ballet, Boston Cannons Lacrosse team, Boston Breakers Women’s Soccer Team, and several local colleges.  Dr. Luz has always had an interest working with first responders as the granddaughter of a police chief and the daughter of a federal agent.  She was a resident at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston and was involved in the care of victims and responders that where at the events of the 2013 Boston Marathon.  Dr. Luz recently made as simple analogy; “If Tom Brady hurt his shoulder, he would have an MRI within a day and surgery within a week.  This would be to not only expedite his recovery, but also to prevent any further damage while waiting for care or approval to receive care.  Why is a first responder any different?  Don’t we need to get them healthy and back at working helping/protecting us?”  This point illustrates the importance of changing our mindset and looking at responders in a different way.


There’s more to the tactical athlete concept than just the way responders are cared for.  There’s a component of maintenance that must accompany the care.  Maintenance of not just the body but also of the mind and spirit.  Many departments are looking at innovative ways to promote health and wellness as it relates to tactical athletes.  Some are working with companies to improve fitness like Boston with their O2X program.  Others are bringing in Yoga instructors to increase endurance and flexibility.  In Indianapolis they are conducting a nutrition study measuring the heart walls of fire fighters and trying to create ways to reduce cardiac issues in the fire service.  There is a behavioral component too.  Finding mental health clinicians that understand the responder world and life, performance coaches, mindful coaches, and working with families to integrate them into department life. 


When you step back and look at all of this, you have to ask… Why?  For too long being a responder has been too dangerous of a job.  Too many have died both on the job or too early after suffering a heart ailment or from the terrible effects of cancer.  How many have left the profession due to mental illness? How many of your co-workers both past and present have taken their lives?  How many families have been broken up because of the ravages and stress of these jobs?  How much money have you or others lost by being unable to work, either at your job, or if you’re a volunteer, at your day job because of an injury suffered helping others?  How much money has your department spent covering your shifts or expenses while you are out injured?  Is this money that could have gone to other programs?


The world of working as a first responder is hard.  The hours are long, the calls can be stressful, and frequently people feel like they are alone.  The long shifts and especially busier call volume days can create terrible eating habits and reduce your exercise and effort when you aren’t at work.  Many first responders get home for their shifts and just “crash out” this is the phenomenon of decompressing and isolating yourself while eating and watching tv or playing video games.  This frequently occurs because of the time they spend in a heightened state of adrenaline or excitement on their shifts and the body dumping and wanting to achieve balance.  Many feel as though their work is a family and their home is a family, but they have difficulty integrating the two.  The total wellness program and tactical athlete concept, as conceptualized, will intervene, help develop healthy eating and exercise practices, improve mental performance and coping mechanisms, and include their loved ones and make them feel as though they are a part of this process.  Long term benefits could include, reducing the number of cardiovascular issues, behavioral health issues, and cancer victims.  For the department they will reduced overtime and worker’s comp expenses, have an easier time keeping staffing adequate, and improve moral.  I know that for me (pictured)... This is something I certainly would have loved to be a part of in my time on the streets!  It’s a win-win! 

              In Part 1of this series we discussed a model Total Wellness Program and some of the benefits it has experienced since its inception.  In this part we will discuss the concepts that have been coming up all over the Country and some recommendations you can take for your agency and start working on them right away.

              I am sitting at the National EMS Physicians Association conference in New Orleans and have sat in on two separate lectures and a full working group with over 50 members all discussing first responder health and safety and what can they as medical directors do to help our responders.  Last week, I attended the Safety and Apparatus Symposium presented by the Fire Department Safety Officers Association, a group who's motto is to improve the health and safety of all first responders. There they discussed several trends including annual physical fitness testing, health and wellness program concepts, department safety cultural challenges, and cancer prevention.  At all of these events, along with the NFF meeting that was discussed in Part 1, several themes seemed to resonate across the board regarding safety and health.  They are outlined below:


  • Make a commitment to invest in the concept of a total wellness program.
  • Create a peer support program, where the line staff determines who the peer support team is comprised of.
  • Provide your peer support personnel with training on stress management and information on getting further help for members.
  • Partner with your surrounding medical community to provide services to employees.
  • Work with metal health clinicians who have a solid understanding of what ALL first responders go through. Assure that you provide them with opportunities to learn more about what this life is like.
  • Create a culture of safety from the top down and a zero tolerance policy regarding safety violations.
  • Establish what must be reported to senior staff and what should remain privileged and make all staff aware of the difference and the line.
  • Create support network and communication networks for members families.
  • Provide administrative support for the program.


Investing in a total wellness program is beneficial to a department on so many levels, but let’s stick to financial.  Every year departments of all shapes and sizes, including volunteer services struggle with staffing due to injuries and leaves.  This becomes very expensive and time consuming by back filling spaces, paying overtime, and struggling to find appropriately trained personnel for the open spots.  While most departments rely on worker’s compensation to cover the salary and medical expenses of the injured party, there is still a cost to departments for their lost time.  Also, when on leave for a personal illness or injury, departments still have to cover for the lost time.  On a volunteer department, especially one with already low staffing, this can be devastating.  They may be required to request mutual aid from neighboring departments or, in some cases, have to pay for their areas to be covered.  Another financial benefit is patient generation.  Hospitals, medical providers, and mental health providers want volumes of patients.  They are more likely to partner with your department knowing that in the future it will lead to patients coming in their door.  Plus, some want to help their community or just think it’s really cool to work with first responders.  On a hospital level, imaging, surgeries, and rehabilitative care are all huge money generators and by working closely with a department to streamline their facilities processes to meet the needs of first responders they can create a profitable win-win situation. 

When you are creating one of these programs you need to have buy-in from your line personnel.  The all to frequent error many departments make is to have a command level officer be in charge of these programs and then select who they want to be the peer support staff.  By having the line staff elect/select the people that they want to go to a department instantly builds trust.  One of the things many first responders express is that they are concerned that in the small world of their departments, their personal information can spread quickly.  By having people they trust ion these roles and training those people on the value of confidentiality and what must be reported and what is best referred, they can have that trust.  One novel recommendation is to create a survey with the names of all department members, then have staff select their top three people that they talk to when they don’t know something or have a problem.  Then take, let’s say the top ten vote getters and there is your peer support team!  This will show the line staff that the program is about them and not management controlling them and will, hopefully, foster participation.

   Working with families is a huge missing component in most first responder organizations throughout the Country.  Be it as a result of scheduling, the hours, and/or the stressors, frequently our loved ones don’t truly understand why we are acting the way we are.  Further, they often don’t know or can’t comprehend the things personnel are going through.  There are studies out there that show the divorce rate of first responders to be at over 80%. There could be many causes for this but at the end of the day, this additional stress does not make for a healthy department or work environment.  By making the significant others of responders feel involved and supported, every day not just when something bad has happened, you are making part of the family.  Frequently different department members call their co-workers their “brothers and sisters.”  Well how would one think their home family would feel about them having a completely separate work family?  While for some bringing their home and work together may be uncomfortable or something that they are not used to.  Having your spouse and family understand better the things you are going through and what others in their shoes are experiencing will only improve their total understanding and hopefully create a more healthy and supportive environment. 

   Creating one of these programs isn't easy, and certainly isn't free.  But this is the price that must be paid to support those that help us all every day.  Next week we will talk about what the @NFPA is doing today and what the future holds for wellness in Part 3.


On a recent trip to Baltimore, I was fortunate enough to participate in the National Fallen Fire Fighters Foundation’s planning meeting as they develop a guide for behavioral wellness for fire departments.  It’s exciting to see that some of the source materials they are using come from the NFPA 1500 series of standards.  While at the meetings, we received a presentation from the Denver Fire Department about their “Total Wellness Program.”  This program looks at firefighting not as just any other profession, but rather as individuals who are high performance athletes and who need constant maintenance of their minds and bodies to be able to handle the stress and rigors of the job.     

              The Denver program has a variety of services available to department members.  They can choose to see one of dozens of therapists who have agreed to work with first responders and have taken the time to ride along in order to understand the toll of the job on one’s mind and body (a couple are even former first responders).  They can see wellness and performance coaches who help them with making healthy choices and give them tips on how to keep their minds engaged.  They use nutritionists to make sure they are eating right and their bodies are fueled appropriately.  Denver even hired two full time physical therapists to work with both injured and non-injured members to ensure they stay fit and healthy.  The coolest part is the medical care; they are using orthopedists that specialize in caring for professional athletes to provide care to injured members.  These specialists have greatly increased the speed in which injured members are imaged and receive procedures, thus they are back on the job faster. 

Another great feature is that the program isn’t just for department members; their significant others and families participate as well.  They are part of a message group, have separate meetings with clinicians, do group events such as fund raisers and exercise classes, and are a part of all department sponsored functions.   The idea to include families came a department funeral where the Chief asked the wives to sit with their husbands.  Instead of a sea of blue with the significant others excluded to the back of the church, they were together, this proved to be a huge success with many saying they felt a part of the family and wanting to be more involved.  The DFD estimates that for every dollar they have spent on the program, they have saved three dollars in what they would have lost on the various leave types for employees. They also have seen a 42% reduction in annual workman’s comp costs.

              Learning about this program made me think to my time working on the streets.  As we look at Part 2 of this series, please comment on your experiences in your careers and whether a program like the one described above would help you or your departments.  Let us know what steps you are taking to improve wellness and what needs to change.  Next week we will talk about some of the concepts you recommend and will present some of the recommendations from the NFFF meeting and workshops. 

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