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An article dedicated to electric vehicle charging requirements was added to the National Electrical Code® (NEC®) in the 1996 edition. This would lead some to believe the 1990’s was the origin of the electric vehicle industry.  The true history of the electric vehicle actually dates back to the mid 1800’s and was one of the first markets for the electric motor, storage battery, and distribution equipment manufacturers. 

Between 1834 and 1896, small-scale production of electric vehicles helped develop public interest in the technology. Electric vehicles could outperform both steam and gas powered automobiles of that era.  The first car dealership in the U.S. sold only electric vehicles.  The first auto race in the U.S. was won by an electric vehicle.  By 1900, large-scale production of electric vehicles ushered in the first golden age of the electric vehicle industry.  At the time the U.S. entered World War I in 1917, 40,000+ electric vehicles were on the road from nearly a dozen manufacturers.  The most popular vehicle during this period was the Detroit Electric manufactured by the Anderson Electric Car Company.  Between 1907 and 1939, the company produced roughly 13,000 electric vehicles.

Early manufacturers of electric vehicle motors included General Electric, Lincoln Electric, and Westinghouse Electric. The “slow-speed” type of motor was adopted by the majority of manufacturers.  The 80 volt motors operated at 800 to 900 rpm and could push a 700-pound to 5-ton vehicle up to 30-mph.  There were two storage battery types used during the early development of the electric vehicle.  The first and most common was the standard lead-acid battery.  At least six different manufacturers produced lead-acid storage batteries in the early 1900’s with the largest being the Electric Storage Battery Company.  This battery was marketed under the name “Exide” which was short for Excellent Oxide.  The other popular battery was the Edison Alkaline Storage Battery which cost twice as much as the standard lead-acid battery but also had superior performance.  The Edison Alkaline Storage Battery owned approximately 25 percent of the pleasure vehicle market and 50 percent of the delivery truck and taxi market. Storage batteries of this era had a life of about 9,000 miles through rectified charging methods.  8-12 hours of charging time was needed at a normal rate of use.    

Electric vehicle supply equipment available in the early 1900’s included direct DC charging from a 110-220 VDC source or via AC rectifying from a 500-600 volt source. The most common AC rectifiers in use during this era included motor generators, rotary converters, and mercury arc rectifiers.  There were over a dozen EVSE manufacturers by 1920 with the largest and most popular being General Electric, the Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co., Westinghouse/Cooper-Hewitt, Allen-Bradley Co., and the Lincoln Electric Company.  700 documented charging stations were in operation in the U.S. at the start of World War I.  Unfortunately, there were also 38 separate charging plug configurations adopted by the Electric Vehicle Association of America at the time.    

Prior to the 1996 edition of the NEC®, requirements for electric vehicle supply equipment were scattered throughout the code.  The earliest editions of the code contained requirements for charging cables, charging panels, storage batteries, and motor generators.  Many of these rules could be found in Article 33 of the code dating before the 1937 edition.  The 1937 NEC® reorganized the code into the Chapter & Article format still used to this very day.  Section 5109 of that edition included requirements for battery charging.  The 1947 NEC® revised the tile to Electric Vehicle Charging and moved the rules to Section 5133.  In the 1953 and 1956 editions of the code, electric vehicle charging could be found in Section 5105.h.  The code format changed again in 1959 placing electric vehicle charging requirement in Section 511-8.  The final location for electric vehicle charging could be found in Section 511-9 of the 1993 NEC®. Article 625 of the 2017 NEC® has four parts, twenty-three articles, and includes twenty definitions. 

Rapid development of the gasoline powered vehicle, the lack of electrical infrastructure outside of cities, and the great depression brought an end to the first golden age of the electric vehicle. Many of the early EVSE manufacturers transitioned into electric power distribution, equipment for premise wiring systems, and away from electrical vehicle supply equipment development.  The electric vehicle industry remained mostly stagnant during the rest of the 20th century with only a few small-scale and concept vehicle productions.

Many electric vehicle enthusiasts would claim we are now in the midst of the second golden age of the electric vehicle. An estimated 570,000 electric vehicles are on the road today utilizing the 70,000+ charging stations available throughout the country.  Advancements in electrical vehicle supply equipment will continue to be the most essential component of the electric vehicle industry.  The availability, speed, and convenience of electric vehicle charging will need to be comparable to fueling gasoline powered vehicles in order for the industry to fully disrupt and overtake the transportation industry.

Forward thinking is required by transportation administrations, community leaders, and property developers. A sufficient number of charging stations will be needed at most public parking lots and garages to accommodate the growing number of electric vehicles being produced and sold each and every year.  “EV-Ready” initiatives are already underway in many states and local jurisdictions, but further progress is needed in every state of the nation.  In an article titled “Seeing Ahead for the Electric Vehicle” written for Electric Vehicles Magazine in the February 1917 issue, Thomas Edison was quoted as saying; “The growth of the electric vehicle has been hindered by lack of charging facilities.  It’s a funny business when so few central stations realize that there is a market for the sale of current for charging electric cars.  The public is in a curious position of wanting to buy something for which there is no place to go.  It is easy to see that we can never expect the electric to come into its own until we have more intelligence and reliability in the places where cars are charged.  Sometimes I think the men who ought to see ten years ahead see only to next week.”  These sentiments hold true to this very day, an entire century since they were first stated.

NEMA represents the manufacturers of EVSE products and assemblies to support the development of the EVSE market by leading efforts to educate the public on the features and value of the electric vehicle supply equipment infrastructure around the world. The Section provides a forum for industry efforts to develop consistent positions for domestic and international codes and standards ensuring safety and interoperability of equipment, to build support for the EVSE market through marketing programs and business information, to organize a unified industry position on legislative and regulatory issues, to develop collaborative efforts, such as training programs with members of the EVSE supply channel, including contractors and installers, to align efforts with major stakeholders in the electric vehicle market, including auto manufacturers, utilities, and the federal government, and to drive business and technology change with global strategies for an EVSE sector.

Code Adoption Progresses in the South

This piece was originally published in the June 2016 issue of ei, the magazine of the electroindustry.

Bryan P. Holland, Southern Region Field Representative, NEMA


Several states in the southern region have completed the code update process, while others have just begun the development cycle. Following is a brief look at the code adoption progress in select states.

Completed States

  • North Carolina: The 2014 National Electrical Code® (NEC) went into effect on April 1, 2016.
  • South Carolina: The 2015 International Code Council codes (I-Codes) and 2014 NEC take effect on July 1, 2016.
  • Alabama: The 2014 NEC, 2015 International Residential Code (IRC), and 2015 International Energy Conservation Code take effect on October 1, 2016.
  • Oklahoma: The 2015 IRC takes effect on November 1, 2016.

In-Progress States

  • Louisiana: The Louisiana Uniform Construction Code Council has assembled several technical committees to review and recommend adoption of the 2015 I-Codes and 2014 NEC. Work is expected to be completed by October 2016. The anticipated effective date of the updated code is January 1, 2017.
  • Florida: The Florida Building Commission has adopted the 2015 I-Codes and 2014 NEC as the base codes for the development of the sixth edition of the Florida Building Code. Technical advisory committees will review proposed code modifications and public comments. Work is expected to continue through 2016 and conclude in late 2017. The anticipated effective date of the updated code is December 31, 2017.
  • Virginia: The Virginia Department of Housing and Community Development has assembled four working groups to review and recommend adoption of the 2015 I-Codes and 2014 NEC. Work is expected to continue through all of 2016 and most of 2017. The anticipated effective date of the updated code is March 1, 2018.

Learn More

NEMA field representatives promote the use and adoption of the electrical, life safety, and energy conservation standards and monitor regional developments that are significant to the electroindustry. Activities include offering public comment at code adoption hearings, providing technical documentation to regulatory agencies, and supporting local associations and organizations impacted by delayed code adoption.

For up-to-date code adoption information in all 50 states and to subscribe to the NEMA code alerts email service, visit

View NEC adoption maps, commercial energy codes adoption by state, and other resources at

The American Electrical Manufacturers Association formed on August 16, 1905 consisting of just (12) New York area electrical manufacturers.  The organization changed its name to the Electrical Manufacturers Club (EMC) in October 1905.  The EMC exists to this very day.



On June 3, 1908 a group of electric motor manufacturers formed the American Association of Electric Motor Manufacturers to promote motor design standards.  The organization expanded its membership to include generator manufacturers and reorganized as the Electric Power Club (EPC) on November 2, 1910. 



The Associated Manufacturers of Electrical Supplies (AMES) formed on May 9, 1915 with a goal of developing uniform performance standards and cost accounting in manufacturing and distribution.



Recognizing a common mission, the AMES, EMC, and EPC came together in 1922 to form the Electrical Manufacturers Council with each organization remaining a separate entity. 



On September 1, 1926 the AMES & EPC agreed to consolidate their memberships into a single organization, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).  Today, NEMA represents over 400 member companies that employ 400,000 American workers at over 7,000 American facilities.  Domestic production exceeds $117 billion dollars a year.



NEMA publishes over 550 product standards.  This includes 228 NEMA standards, 40 ANSI standards, 229 American National Standards, and 81 CANENA/IEC Harmonized Product Safety Standards.  NEMA participates on over 2,500 meetings per year.



Free NEMA standards by category:


Free NEMA Whitepapers:


Free NEMA Engineering Bulletins:

NEMA Publishes NEMA FRP 1-2015 The Importance of Licensing, Permitting, and Inspection to NEMA Member Companies - NEMA


The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) published NEMA FRP 1-2015 The Importance of Licensing, Permitting, and Inspection to NEMA Member Companies.

Developed by the Task Force on the Field Program, this white paper is intended for anyone involved in the installation and end use of electrical products. In addition, it is intended for regulators and legislators who are involved with the establishment and maintenance of these processes.


NEMA FRP 1-2015 may be downloaded for no charge on the NEMA website.

John Minick Obituary - Bean-Massey-Burge Funeral Home | Grand Prairie TX


John David Minick passed away October 8, 2015. He was born October 31, 1943 in Dallas, Texas to Christopher and Mary Minick.  John grew up in Grand Prairie, Texas and graduated from Grand Prairie High School in 1961. He received his Bachelor's Degree in Business from the University of Texas at Arlington. He married the love of his life Jane Miller on January 28, 1966 at Faith Lutheran Church in Grand Prairie, Texas. He was a long-time member of Faith Lutheran Church, serving in various leadership positions.


John was a master electrician, worked for the City of Grand Prairie as the Chief Electrical Inspector for many years before becoming a Field Representative for the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association in Washington D.C. for the past 18 years. He was chairman of Code Making Panel 1 for the National Electrical Code for NFPA for 1999, 2002, and 2005. He was a nationally recognized National Electrical Code expert. He was a member of IAEI, NFPA, ICC, North Central Texas Council of Gov'ts, and the IAEI Gold Roadrunner's Club. He received many awards and recognitions, including the Howieson Award and the George Flach Lifetime Service Award. He retired in 2012.



He enjoyed history, fishing and watching old western movies. His true passion was his family. He loved spending time with his grandchildren. He attended most of their sports events and was always sending them small care packages and notes of love and encouragement.  John was a very hard working man, building a life and career based on integrity, ethics and faith. John was humble, loyal and caring. He had a wonderful sense of humor and was dedicated to his family and his work.  John is preceded in death by his mother Mary Townsend Minick and father Christopher Minick.  He is survived by his wife Jane Minick; children: Mark Minick and his wife Kim, Ashley Minick; grandchildren: Jake Minick, Lauren Minick; sister Irene Tower and 3 nieces.



The Passing of a Legend – John D Minick | NEMA Currents



The electrical industry is mourning the death of former NEMA Field Representative John Minick who passed away on October 8, 2015.  He was 72 years-old.  John was a nationally recognized electrical code expert and a consummate advocate of the electrical industry.  Many generations of electrical professionals have been guided and mentored by John’s immense knowledge of the electrical code and electrical code history.



My relationship with John was series of remarkable coincidences.  The first seminar I attended as a member of the IAEI was a code workshop instructed by John Minick and Mark Ode.  What an amazing experience.  Not only was John’s total recall of the NEC incredibly impressive, but his ability to explain the code in a manner both technical and understandable made learning from John effortless.  John knew everyone in attendance on a first name basis and once he met you for the first time, he never forgot who you were, who you worked for, and where you first met.  It was this personal touch that endeared him to so many in the electrical industry.  As I sat there in class, I clearly remember thinking that I wanted to be like these guys one day.  I wanted to know the code and be able to present the code at this level of expertise.  I was deeply inspired.



Several years after this first meeting, I had the opportunity to attend my first IAEI Southern Section Meeting.  It was during this event where the second coincidence occurred.  On the night of the banquet, John was inducted into the prestigious IAEI Golden Roadrunners Club.  I felt so fortunate to be in attendance to witness this great moment in John’s career.  Experiencing this event reaffirmed my commitment to the electrical industry and my desire to be an educator and advocate.



On May 19th 2014, I found myself on the 9th floor of Arlington Tower in Rosslyn, Virginia beginning my first day as the new NEMA Southern Region Field Representative.  I could hardly believe it.  It was a dream come true.  It has been an honor and privilege for me to continue the legacy established by John Minick and the other NEMA Field Representatives.  Everywhere I go and every event I attend, at least one person shares with me a John Minick story.  They are usually funny or emotional, and clearly had an impact on the person telling me the story.  What a gift.



I believe we have all been inspired by John and will continue to be inspired by the knowledge and education he has left us with.



Rest in peace John Minick.  You will be missed but never forgotten.