Hi, I was about to replace the Smoke detector into Heat detector from a open air hallways as it always trigger a maintenance dirty trouble.
NFPA 1 and NFPA 101 requires smoke detection in certain areas of specific occupancies. If the hallway is not one of those areas and it is not critical to have early warning of fire, then the smoke detector can be replaced for a heat detector.
Under the International Family of Codes specifically in the International Fire Code, 2018 Edition, Chapter 9, Section 907.4 (Initiating devices), Subsection 907.4.1 (Protection of fire alarm control unit) which requires a smoke detector at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extender, and supervising station transmission equipment, an exception is provided to allow a heat detector to be installed where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of a smoke detector.
Additionally, the National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code (NFPA 72) 2016 Edition, Chapter 17, Section 17.7 (Smoke Sensing Fire Detectors), Subsection 18.104.22.168 states; "The selection and placement of smoke detectors shall take into account the performance characteristics of the detector and the areas into which the detectors are to be installed to prevent nuisance and unintentional alarms or improper operation after installation." It sounds to me as if you have the type of ambient conditions that allow the placement of a heat detector rather than a smoke detector.
As always you should check with your local Authority Having Jurisdiction to see if replacing the detector is allowed and be ready to demonstrate the need to replace it. It depends upon the codes and standards in effect in your area and what if any additional requirements have been set forth by your local authority.
Hope this helps.
The first question to answer is "why were these detectors required/what were they intended to protect?".
I don't see enough information to make an accurate response. Please clarify "open air". I understand that to mean the detector is on the exterior of the building along a covered walkway. If this is true, is it possible for the temperature in this climate to "ever" reach freezing (32F)? If this is possible then NFPA-72 prohibits the installation of smoke detectors (or any devices) that are not listed for those conditions. I have yet to see an area smoke detector UL listed below freezing. Some heat detectors are UL listed below freezing but you need to verify the UL listing of the heat detectors you intend to replace the smoke detectors with... some are only down to 0F.
If, open air does not mean exterior then again, what was the original requirement for area smoke detection coverage? Were these required because the building has no sprinklers and a code official required covering the egress path as a minimum trade-off? Door hold opens or fire doors being triggered by detection of smoke? Were dampers required that would normally require a duct mounted smoke detector but can use area smoke detection to eliminate the duct smoke detector?
Too many possibilities and not enough background to the question. One thing I can answer is that most jurisdictions require the AHJ to review and approve removal of devices or changes to a previously approved system that is in operation.
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